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Articles by V. Pathak
Total Records ( 5 ) for V. Pathak
  S.A.A. Bukhari , V. Pathak , Z.F. Bhat and S.R. Ahmad
  Kaladhi is a hard and dry cheese variety of Jammu and Kashmir which is prepared by directly acidifying the milk with organic acids without the use of rennet and starter. Storage quality of Kaladhi prepared by using different organic acid coagulants at their optimum level viz., 5% acetic acid, 5% citric acid and 5% lactic acid was assessed in terms of physicochemical, proximate, microbiological and sensory properties at ambient temperature (21-25°C) for 28 days. Fresh buffalo milk standardized to 5.5% fat and 9% SNF was used for the preparation of the product using different organic acids as coagulants at 40°C and the Kaladhi prepared traditionally using day old whey as coagulant served as control. The results showed a significant (p<0.05) increase in most of the physico-chemical parameters i.e., titratable acidity, free fatty acids (% Oleic acid) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value. However, a significant (p<0.05) decrease in pH and most of the proximate parameters was observed. Similarly, sensory scores also decreased significantly (p<0.05) during the storage period in all the three types of Kaladhi prepared by using different organic acid coagulants. The microbial characters viz. total plate count and yeast and mold count increased significantly (p<0.05) throughout the storage period. The yeast and mold counts were observed to increase rather rapidly and incessantly beyond 14 days of storage. Based on various physico-chemical and sensory parameters, Kaladhi prepared from lactic acid at 5% level proved to be optimum with 11.14% yield, 32.54% moisture, 25.45% protein, 50.39% fat (on dry matter basis) and 2.44% ash.
  V.P. Singh , V. Pathak and Akhilesh K. Verma
  Fermented foods are value added products which have higher nutrients, prolong shelf life and easy in digestibility and are more suitable for the intestinal tract. The organoleptic qualities of such foods are higher particularly in terms of flavour, taste, aroma and colour. For the production of fermented products we require starter culture such as Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) strains, most of the meat starter cultures are Lactobacillus pentosus, L. casei L. curvetus, L. planterum, L. sakei, Pediococcus acidilactici and P. pentosaceus. These foods are also able to produce certain biogenic amines; the most commonly found biogenic amines in the meat and meat products are tyramine, cadaverine, putrescine and also histamine. The formation of such bioamines further enhances the functional properties of the foods besides addition in nutrients.
  K. K. Vass , R. K. Tyagi , H. P. Singh and V. Pathak
  The River Ganges is the most important of all Indian rivers. It is being harnessed for several onsite and offsite benefits for various sections of society. Through varied man-induced interventions, over the years, the river system has recorded changes in its ecological functions, especially at some stations of the middle stretch viz., Kanpur, Varanasi and Allahabad. An attempt has been made in the present paper to understand changes with regard to key parameters of water quality, fish species composition and catches in this stretch, covering the highly populated major states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. For this purpose, data available over the years and some new data were utilized. These data reveal that siltation over the years has lowered water volumes and depths at various sections in the middle stretch with over 90% of the sediment comprising sand. The water quality in terms of pH remained higher (7.0 to 8.8) at some stations while dissolved oxygen remained lower (4.5 to 5.8 ppm) in comparison to upper and lower river stretches, suggesting progressive eutrophication. Other parameters, especially nutrients, also showed variations, coupled with variability in plankton density and primary productivity in this stretch reflecting changes in ecological functions. These changes coupled with various engineering interventions has resulted in drastic changes in water flows in the main river channel, the cumulative impact is evident in the drop in fish catches from 932 kg km-1 in the 1960s to 382 kg km-1 in the recent past, and the shift in species dominance from Indian major carps to less economic varieties. This has affected the livelihoods of fishers. The general lack of concern and awareness among the river authorities on requirements of river fishery management has been observed to be main reasons for these changes. Possible policy and governance interventions required to restore the river for sustainable fishery have also been suggested in this paper.
  Z.F. Bhat , V. Pathak , S.A.A. Bukhari , S.R. Ahmad and H. Bhat
  Harrisa is a popular indigenous ready to eat meat based product of Jammu and Kashmir. An attempt was made to standardize the processing technology by optimizing the basic formulation and processing conditions for the preparation of Harrisa from chevon meat. Harrisa developed from chevon was aerobically packed in LDPE pouches and evaluated for various physicochemical, microbiological and sensory attributes for a shelf life of 1 week at refrigeration temperature (4±1°C). The storage of chevon Harrisa resulted in significant (p<0.05) decrease in almost all the quality attributes and sensory scores, but all the parameters were well within the limits of acceptability. The mean values of various observed physico-chemical and proximate parameters of the product viz., pH, protein percent, fat percent and ash percent showed a significant (p<0.05) increasing trend whereas the moisture percent values of the product decreased significantly (p<0.05) during refrigerated storage. The mean sensory scores indicated that chevon Harrisa was highly acceptable although all the sensory parameters showed a significant (p<0.05) decline with storage. Texture and flavour seemed to have decided the overall palatability of the product. The mean values of the total plate count and psychrophillic count increased significantly (p<0.05) whereas the coliforms were not detected throughout the period of storage. The highest values for total plate count (2.37±0.008) and psychrophillic count (1.68±0.018) were observed on day 7 of storage. Free Fatty Acid (FFA) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values also increased significantly (p<0.05) with storage period. Thus, Harrisa standardized from chevon meat and packed aerobically in LDPE pouches is acceptable up to one week of refrigerated (4±1°C) storage without much decline in the quality of the product.
  V. Pathak , V.P. Singh and Yadav Sanjay
  Ultrasound is a modern tool that can be utilized as non-destructive means for carcass evaluation and meat processing. It may also serve the purpose of value and quality-based marketing of live animals as well as the carcass and meat products at global level. Ultrasounds are the waves which can travel more quickly through muscle tissues than fat tissues. Measuring the velocity with which a sound wave passes from a transmitter to a receiver through a meat sample gives an indication of composition. Accuracy of prediction of carcass composition on live animals could be improved by the addition of ultrasonic fat and muscle depth measurements. By this way subcutaneous fat thickness in live animals could be accurately measured over the rib, lumbar and rump and that longissimus muscle area. Meat is inspected ultrasonically to determine fat-to-lean ratio and to obtain a three-dimensional computer image of the interior of the carcass showing the location, shape and nature of the various pixels of different materials (fat, lean, bone, abscesses or other tissues) in the carcass. On that basis grading of the carcasses can be easily done. Low-intensity ultrasound is a non-destructive technique that provides information about physicochemical properties like composition, structure, physical state and flow rate. High-intensity ultrasound is used to alter physical or chemical properties of foods, for example to generate emulsions, disrupt cells, promote chemical reactions, inhibit enzymes, tenderize meat and modify crystallization processes. Ultimately, ultrasound is a good tool for assessment of carcass characteristics in live animals, non-destructive method in quality evaluation of carcass and different meat product. It may also be the important means for marketability of the animal products through quality assurance.
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