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Articles by V. Muchenje
Total Records ( 3 ) for V. Muchenje
  B. Gunya , V. Muchenje and P.J. Masika
  Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of Eisenia foetida (E. foetida) meal on the carcass characteristics and physicochemical attributes of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 180, 12 per treatment un-sexed day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments (T) as follows: 0% (EW0), 1% (EW1), 3% (EW3) 5%, (EW5) and 10% (EW10) earthworm meal inclusion. At day 35, carcass characteristics and meat quality were measured. Results: The results revealed the dietary effect on the wing and drumstick yield (p<0.05), however, supplementation of E. foetida meal linearly (p<0.05) reduced wing yield. The gizzard yield was increased linearly (p = 0.05) by worm meal inclusion. In addition, there were dietary treatments effects (p<0.05) on the colour of breast muscles over time. The highest values for L* (lightness) and b* (yellowness) were found in EW5 birds while the highest values for a* (redness) were found in EW1 birds. The pH values were affected (p<0.05) by the dietary treatments at 1h post-mortem with the highest pH values observed in birds in EW3 and EW1. Dietary treatments had a significant influence (p<0.05) on cooking loss; even though, there were no differences (p>0.05) observed on shear force values. The cooking loss increased linearly (p = 0.009) by the inclusion of worm meal. Conclusion: In conclusion, the inclusion of E. foetida meal into diets of broilers had positive effects on carcass characteristics and physicochemical attributes.
  C.E. Oyeagu , V. Mlambo and V. Muchenje
  Background and Objective: Recently, the term “resistant starch” has been increasingly used in the literature to describe starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine together with non-starch polysaccharides. Exogenous enzymes have been employed to ameliorate these challenges. Hence, the optimum performance of Aspergillus xylanase on maize-soy bean meal has not been fully investigated. This study was designed to test the effects of Aspergillus xylanase on apparent nutrient digestibility, protein utilization efficiency, growth performance and size of visceral organs on broilers. Materials and Methods: Three-hundred-day-old mixed sex Cobb 500® chicks were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments with five replicates of 12 birds each. Dietary treatments include, xylanase (XYL) 0 (0 g kg–1), XYL10 (1 g kg–1), XYL15 (1.5 g kg–1), XYL20 (2 g kg–1) and XYL25 (2.5 g kg–1). Results: Results showed that birds fed XYL20 and 25 had higher (p<0.05) crude fiber and dry matter digestibility. Dietary treatment XYL20 promoted the highest (p<0.05) body weight gain (BWG) in the final week. Birds fed XYL20 recorded the best (p<0.05) feed conversion ratio during all phases of the feeding trial and the highest (p<0.05) BWG during the starter phase. Birds fed XYL20 had the highest (p<0.05) values for thigh, breast, wing and carcass yields. Both protein and energy efficiency ratios (PER and EER, respectively) were improved (p<0.05) for birds fed XYL20 during all phases. The small intestine lengths decreased (p<0.05) but spleen weights increased (p<0.05) as Aspergillus xylanase enzyme levels increased. Conclusion: The optimum Aspergillus xylanase inclusion levels that caused the greatest response for all measured parameters was 2 g kg–1.
  N.A. Sebola , V. Mlambo , H.K. Mokoboki and V. Muchenje
  Continuous supplementation of chicken diets with plant-based alternative feed resources such as Moringa oleifera has the potential to modify the bird’s anatomy and physiology. A 90 days feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of M. oleifera leaf meal supplementation on weight of internal organs, haematological parameters and serum biochemical indicesinthree chicken strains that are normally reared extensively in South Africa. Moringa leaves were harvested by hand, air-dried and milled into M. Oleifera Leaf Meal (MOLM). The leaf meal was chemically analysed and used to dilute a commercial broiler finisher diet at 0 (MOLM0), 25 (MOLM25), 50 (MOLM50) and 100 (MOLM100) g kg–1 DM, producing four isoenergetic and isonitrogenousdietary treatments. The 216 Potchefstroom Koekoek (PK), Ovambo (OV) and Black Australorp (BA) chickens were raised on a commercial starter mash for 3 weeks. On the 4th week, experimental diets were offered until 13 weeks of age. At 13 weeks of age blood samples were taken from 6 chickens (3 males and 3 females) per treatment and used for biochemical and haematological analysis. Higher inclusion levels of MOLM resulted in longer small intestines and larger gizzards in both male and female chickens. Male BA chickens on MOLM0 diet had the least Red Blood Cell (RBC) and haematocrit counts compared to other diets. When offered MOLM50, female OV chicken strain had lower Aspartate Transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphate (ALKP) (156.9 U L–1) compared to BA and PK chicken strains. Incremental levels of MOLM resulted in higher Total Protein (TP) in female chickens. In male chickens low levels of Alanine Transaminase (ALT) were observed when offered MOLM50 (10.0 U L–1) and MOLM100 (11.0 U L–1). It was concluded that inclusion of MOLM at levels up to 10 g kg–1 had no adverse effect on the health and nutritional status of the three chicken strains.
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