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Articles by V. Kumar
Total Records ( 6 ) for V. Kumar
  Jatropha curcas (L.) is a multipurpose and drought-resistant tree, widespread throughout the tropics and subtropics. Its seeds are rich in oil and protein (contains 600–660 g kg−1 crude protein similar to fish meal). It is being promoted as a biofuel plant. Jatropha kernel meal obtained after oil extraction is an excellent source of protein. However, presence of toxic and antinutritional constituents restricts its use in fish and shrimp feed. An 8-week experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutritional quality of the detoxified Jatropha kernel meal (DJKM) in white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Shrimp (60) with an initial average body weight of 4.46 ± 0.64 g were randomly distributed into three treatments with four replicates and fed isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets (crude protein 350 g kg−1, crude lipid 90 g kg−1): Control (fish meal-based protein), JC25 and JC50 (25% and 50% of fish meal protein replaced by DJKM). Higher (P < 0.05) body mass gain, specific growth rate and metabolic growth rate were observed in DJKM-fed groups than in Control group. However, lower (P > 0.05) feed conversion ratio was observed in DJKM-fed groups, while protein efficiency ratio exhibited an opposite trend. Protein, ash and gross energy content of the whole shrimp body were higher (P < 0.05) in DJKM-fed groups compared to Control group. Moisture and lipid content of the whole shrimp body did not differ significantly among the three groups. Cholesterol level in plasma was highest (P < 0.05) in the Control group, followed by JC25 and JC50 groups; all being significantly different. In conclusion, DJKM is a promising fish meal replacer in shrimp diets.
  M. Kumar , B. Sharma , A. Kumar , H.P. Lal , V. Kumar and M.K. Tripathi
  Toxocara canis is a very important gastrointestinal nematode affecting canines with considerable public health importance. This study was conducted to find out the prevalence and corresponding haemato-biochemical changes in dogs infested with T. canis and to determine its zoonotic implication to dog owners. A total of 121 dogs were screened from October 2008 to May 2009 by direct smear and Mc-master technique, to determine correlation between overall prevalence of T. canis infestation with respect to sex, age, breed, size and season-wise infestation. Haemato-biochemical profile was performed in 24 infested dogs, randomly selected to evaluate changes in Hb, PCV, TEC, TLC, DLC count, serum protein, serum glucose and serum enzymes. The overall prevalence was found to be 28.93%. The prevalence was not influenced by sex but non-descript breeds had significantly higher rates. Pups were more infested than adults and the disease was more prevalent in winters. Dogs having active infection with T. canis infestation showed anemia, leucocytosis and significant eosinophilia (p<0.05). A significant decrease (p<0.05) was observed in serum protein and glucose whereas highly significant increase (p<0.01) was found for both serum enzymes (SGOT and SGPT). Very few dog owners (4.13%) were aware about potential public health significance of the parasite. Survey revealed that unaware owners who belonged to lower/middle/upper middle class, did not maintain hygiene and scheduled deworming and always remain at high zoonotic risk. Being zoonotic, the parasite poses a significant danger to humans mainly children who remain in their vicinity. Thus immediate action needs to be taken to control this parasite and to increase awareness among the dog-owners about the zoonoses being spread by the companion animals.
  R. Singh , V. Kapoor and V. Kumar
  The present study deals with the standardization of different cultural conditions for extracellular α-amylase production by thermophilic Streptomyces sp. MSC702 in submerged fermentation (SmF). The appropriate incubation period (48 h), temperature (50°C) and pH (7.0) were determined. The effects of derived and natural carbon sources, inorganic and organic nitrogen sources were also examined. Maximum α-amylase production i.e., 435.71 and 373.89 U mL-1 were achieved by employing derived (D-inositol) and natural (rice bran) carbon sources, respectively. Among the tested nitrogen sources, ammonium sulphate and peptone were found the best inorganic and organic sources, respectively. The C:N ratio found to be the optimum was 1:1. The highest α-amylase activity (807.64 U mL-1) was obtained by utilizing rice bran and wheat bran in 1:2 ratio as the substrate with supplements of D-inositol (1% w/v), ammonium sulphate (0.5% w/v) and peptone (1% w/v). By using the optimized cultural conditions with further characterization, this α-amylase may be utilized in wide spread applications like detergent, saccharification and pharmaceutical industry.
  V. Kumar and P. Balasubramanie
  In today’s modern world, people needs the fastness and efficiency in any system that we considered. So, there is a need for a mechanism which satisfied the needs of network users. Pipelining is a technique that allows the execution of many jobs to overlap in time. Overlapping is accomplished by dividing each job into stages. This study presents concepts of medium access control layer in the IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordinated Function (DCF). Also, it modifies the medium access control layer mechanism and implementing it in the pipelining technique. The pipelining techniques used are partial pipelining technique and total pipelining technique. In the existing technique one control channel and one data channels are used. The control channel is for contention resolution and the data channel is for transmitting data and to receive acknowledgment. But in the proposed technique two contention resolution channels and one data channel is used.
  Mahima , A. Rahal , R. Mandil , A.K. Verma and V. Kumar
  Moringa olifera or the horseradish tree, also known as saijhan, sajna, benzolive, drumstick tree, kelor or marango, is a large tree indigenous to the India and neighbouring countries like Bangladesh, Afghanistan and Pakistan. It is known as one of the world’s most useful trees. Its leaves are used in Indian foods fresh as salads, cooked or stored as dried powder for long periods with minimum loss of nutrients. Leaves of Moringa olifera are also used for treatment of inflammatory conditions, paralysis, hypertension, athlete’s foot and tinea. It acts as galactogogue, rubefacient, an antidote, antiscorbutic, stimulant and diuretic. The study was undertaken to evaluate the proximate and elemental analysis of the leaves of Moringa olifera. The proximate analyses viz., crude protein, crude fibre, total ash, nitrogen free extract, cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin etc were carried out using standard protocol while mineral analysis was done using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The proximate analysis of the leaves of Moringa olifera showed that it contained moisture 72.39%, ether extract 2.525%, crude protein 14.125%, crude fibre 23.09%, total ash 9.15%, nitrogen free extract 51.11%, cellulose 11.00%, hemicellulose 10.24% and lignin 2.41%. The mineral analysis of the leaves showed that they contain the following essential minerals; calcium (199.23 ppm), phosphorous (34.81 ppm), iron (111.058 ppm), copper (8.733 ppm), zinc (69.342 ppm) and manganese (72.242 ppm). The study revealed that Moringa olifera leaves to be a potential source of essential nutrients and minerals especially calcium and iron for man as well as animals and could be utilized to improve growth performance and health benefits.
  A. Kumari , V. Kumar and S.K. Yadav
  Natural product isolation and extraction is full of many technical hitches. In spite of that plant origin natural products have occupied lead positions as drugs in current pharmacopoeia. In this article, problems in natural product drug development and the possibilities of their improvement through nanoformulations using nanotechnology have been reviewed. Known effects and no side effects have made natural products a powerful therapeutic solution to the organisms. But the delivery of plant origin therapeutic molecules as drugs is problematic due to poor solubility, poor permeability, low bioavailability, instability in biological milieu and extensive first pass metabolism. These limitations of plant origin drugs can be overcome by attaching or encapsulating them with suitable nanomaterials. Nanomaterials can significantly enhance the pharmacokinetics and therapeutic index of plant origin drugs. Targeted delivery and combination therapy can drastically improve the performance of plant origin drugs.
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