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Articles by V. Balakrishnan
Total Records ( 8 ) for V. Balakrishnan
  Pund Satish Karbhari , V. Balakrishnan and M. Murugan
  Deciphering the myth and replacement value of sugarcane tops silage made with 1% urea, 0.5% salt and 2% molasses (SCTS) to mixed green grass (GG) having iso-nitrogenous (1.81) and iso-caloric value (48% TDN) was studied. Eight crossbred heifers (13-19 months age) were divided in two groups of four animals in each. Animals were offered either GG or SCTS ad libitum and concentrate as 1/3rd of total dry matter requirement in a 180 days trial. Though the dry matter intake of SCTS was (p<0.05) lower than GG (96.99 vs 90.70 g kg-1 W0.75), the occurrence (75%), intensity, duration of oestrum (18.17 vs 19.83 h) and the number of heifers conceived (50%) were not affected. In yet another experiment, eight crossbred cows in advanced stage of pregnancy were placed in the same feeding regime and its effect on dry matter intake, incidence of abortion and birth weight of calves were assessed. The milk yield and quality were studied in the calved animals. It was observed that feeding of SCTS did not induce abortion in the advanced pregnant cows, the dry matter intake (136.64 Vs 119.72 g kg-1W0.75) and the birth weight of calves did not vary (17.00 vs 20.75 kg). The post partum milk yield (8.05 vs 7.80 kg) and its composition were not affected by feeding SCTS. There was no incidence of abortion in conceived heifers/ cows fed with SCTS. Hence, it is concluded that SCTS can be used as alternate fodder without affecting reproductive performances in crossbred heifers/cows.
  R. Murugeswari , V. Balakrishnan and R. Vijayakumar
  Degradability studies of processed tapioca leaves in the form of hay and silage for both the varieties (White Rose (H226) and Mulluvaadi (MVD-1)) conducted in RUSITEC and compared with unprocessed tapioca leaves. It was found that unprocessed tapioca leaves had high soluble degradable dry matter and high effective degradability than processed (hay and silage) tapioca leaves. The RDN and UDN values were found to vary between unprocessed and processed leaves but the total absorbable nitrogen values were similar between processed and unprocessed for both the varieties. A study was also undertaken to examine the need for supplementation for improvement of microbial production. Supplementation of digestible organic matter to the extent of 10.99 to 12.31% was suggested as a tool to exploit the full potential nutritive value of processed and unprocessed tapioca leaves. Further in vitro rumen fermentation studies also revealed Higher pH (7.30), lower propionic acid (8.05 mM L-1) and TVFA (36.90 mM L-1), higher ammonia nitrogen (12.17 mg%) and lower microbial protein synthesis (45.17 mg%) clearly tilt the favour against unprocessed tapioca leaves and suggestive that processing of tapioca leaves (White Rose (H226) and Mulluvaadi (MVD-1)) was desirable over unprocessed tapioca leaves. Hence this study recommends processing of tapioca leaves as hay or silage for year round availability.
  C. Kathirvelan and V. Balakrishnan
  As 10 ppm zinc (Z) in rumen liquor retards urea (U) hydrolysis and prevents ammonia toxicity, its effect and the supplemental value of enzyme (E)/yeast (Y) on rumen fermentation were studied in Hohenheim gas production test. Treatments includes control (C), CU, CUZ, CUE, CUEZ, CUY, CUYZ experimented in duplicate in two sequential runs with two replications in each run. CUZ had significantly (p<0.01) lowest gas production at 24 h (15.33 mL) where as significantly (p<0.01) highest gas production was recored in CUY (43.83 mL) and CUYZ (41.08 mL) that maintained untill 48 h of incubation. The molar proportion of propionate was increased whenever zinc supplemented but at non significant level. The acetate to propionate ratio ranged from 3.35 to 4.00. Energetic efficiency was significantly (p<0.01) increased in CUEZ (30.75%) over (C), (CU), (CUZ) and was inturn significantly (p<0.01) lower than CUY (36.59%). Maximum energetic efficiency (p<0.01) was recorded in CUYZ (38.67%) than the rest of treatments. Zinc consistently improved energetic efficiency over those treatments that do not have Zinc. It is thus concluded that while supplementing Zinc at 10 ppm to retard urea hydrolysis, 1 CFU of yeast needs to be included to offset the ill effects of Zinc on rumen fermentation. The projected equivalent in the diet of adult cattle weighing 500 kg is 1.31 g Zinc/day and 3,000 CFU of yeast.
  R. Amarnath and V. Balakrishnan
  In an effort to assess the replacement value of banana by-products viz., stem, psedostem and leaves over conventional roughage ten iso-nitrogenous and isocalorofic rations were formulated. Conventional roughage at 60% in the complete diet (control) replaced by any of the banana by-products viz., stem, psedostem and leaves either individually or in combination at two levels (30 or 60%) was evaluated in four measurements at 24 h through Hoheneim gas production test on digestibility and rumen fermentation pattern. The percent molar proportion of acetate: butyrate: propionate across the diets ranges from 63.8-86:1.7-6.5:11.5-30.66. The level of banana leaves in the complete diet proportionately influenced acetate to propionate ratio. Consequently Non Glucogenic Ratio (NGR) was also influenced and the impact was observed wherever leaves are included in the diet. The values of true digestibility indicated that leaves and psedostem at 30% in complete diet were comparable to control. It was observed that as the level of inclusion of leaves or pseudostem increased from 30 to 60%, depression (p<0.05) in digestibility was noticed, where as such trend was not observed in stem and were comparable to 60% of combination of any two banana by-products. The ATP yield for the ten different complete diets did not show any significant difference. However, the efficiency of microbial biomass production revealed that only banana leaves at 30% was comparable to control and the rest were significantly (p<0.05) lower. The YATP was highest (p<0.05) in control followed by leaves at 30%. The data on YATP, volatile fatty acids, gas produced, microbial mass generated in relation to degraded substrate of the ten complete diets indicate that control diet had the most preferred fermentable characteristics and comparable to that was leaves at 30%, where as rest diets were inferior. Hence it is concluded that banana leaves could be used in complete diet up to 30% inclusion level.
  C. Sugumar and V. Balakrishnan
  The sunflower acid oil was subjected to three methods of protection viz., Aldehyde treated protein encapsulated form, calcium soap and fatty acyl amides. The extent of rumen lipolysis was assessed by comparing the intensity and surface area of the free fatty acids zone on the chromatographic field between 24 h incubated and unincubated samples. The data originated from six measurements suggest that the calcium soaps offer best protection, as even after 24 h of incubation, the samples had the most desirable faint intensity and lower surface area of free fatty acids zone, which indicate that the calcium soaps undergo lowest metabolism in the rumen than its counterparts. Based on the intensity and surface area of the free fatty acids zone on the chromatographic field, calcium soaps of sunflower acid oil was selected as the potential protected fat in the rations of dairy cows.
  S.P. Vinil and V. Balakrishnan
  A study was undertaken to optimise feeding protein sources viz., groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) cake and sesame (Sesamum indicum) cake with paddy (Oryza sativa) straw for effective nutrient utilisation by assessing their degradability characteristics. The percent effective degradability of dry matter in paddy straw was 24.39; sesame cake had 76.94 that was significantly (p<0.01) higher than groundnut cake with 67.69. The percent soluble nitrogen of groundnut cake (0) was significantly (p<0.01) lower than sesame cake (66.06), while the insoluble nitrogen fraction for groundnut cake (96.71) was significantly (p<0.01) higher than sesame cake (31.79). The percent effective rumen degradable nitrogen and organic matter apparently digested in the rumen reveals that the potential for microbial nitrogen production is higher (p<0.05) in sesame cake (2.01) than groundnut cake (1.89). Paddy straw requires 0.60% nitrogen supplementation to satisfy its potency for microbial production. It is observed that 200 g of groundnut cake or 250 g of sesame cake is required to supplement with one kg of paddy straw for optimizing microbial synthesis.
  A. Manoharan , D. Ramasamy , C. Naresh Kumar , B. Dhanalashmi and V. Balakrishnan
  The demand for natural food colorants is increasing because of public awareness of their health benefits. Betalains are nitrogen-containing plant pigments whose colors range from red-violet betacyanins to yellow betaxanthins. They are used for coloring dairy products, meat and frozen desserts. An investigation was carried out to find the acceptable level of beetroot juice as a natural coloring agent for ice cream and assess the sensory scored of the resultant product. Beetroot juice was incorporated at different level in strawberry flavor ice cream. Prepared ice cream was subjected to sensory analysis and found out the optimum level of inclusion of beetroot juice in the ice cream preparation. Then sample were stored at -29°C and studied for their sensory scores at weekly intervals.
  C. Kathirvelan and V. Balakrishnan
  A study was conducted to examine effect of supplemental 10 ppm zinc on in vitro dry matter degradability and fibre digestibility of paddy straw at 48 h of incubation in 4 replications. The results indicated that supplemental zinc at 10 ppm significantly (p< 0.01) reduced dry matter digestibility as well as neutral detergent fibre digestibility compared to control. Another experiment was conducted to study the efficacy of supplemental enzyme/yeast to overcome ill effect of 10 ppm zinc on apparent, true digestibility and microbial biomass by using Hoheinhem gas production test. Treatments include control, urea (35 mg mL-1), urea + zinc (10 ppm), urea + enzyme (cellulase 40 units, xylanase 50 units mL-1), urea + enzyme + zinc, urea + yeast (1 cfu mL-1), urea + yeast + zinc. Experiment was replicated in duplicate in two sequential runs with two replications in each run. The urea + zinc lowered the apparent digestibility, true digestibility and percent microbial biomass yield compared to urea. The urea + yeast had the highest apparent digestibility (30.87%), true digestibility (35.70%) and maximum percent microbial biomass yield (4.83%). These results were however comparable to urea + enzyme. It is concluded that the ill effect of 10 ppm zinc on dry matter degradability, neutral detergent fibre digestibility, apparent and true digestibility can be countered by supplementing enzyme (cellulase 40 units, xylanase 50 units mL-1) or yeast (1 cfu mL-1).
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