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Articles by V. S. E Jeganathan
Total Records ( 2 ) for V. S. E Jeganathan
  V. S. E Jeganathan , T. Y Wong , P. J Foster , J. G Crowston , W. T Tay , S. C Lim , S. M Saw , E. S Tai and T. Aung

Objective  To examine the relationship between peripheral artery disease (PAD) and glaucoma.

Methods  As part of a population-based study of 3280 persons of Malay descent (78.7% response) aged 40 to 80 years examined between August 1, 2004, and June 30, 2006, the ankle-brachial index (ABI) was assessed in all persons with known diabetes mellitus and every fifth systematically sampled participant without diabetes. Peripheral artery disease was deemed present if the ABI was 0.9 or less. Glaucoma was diagnosed using International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria.

Results  Of the 922 participants who had ABI measured, 79 (8.6%) had PAD and 42 (4.6%) had glaucoma. Persons with PAD were more likely to have glaucoma (11.4% vs 3.9%; age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-6.24), higher intraocular pressure (age- and sex-adjusted mean, 16.4 vs 15.5; P = .05), and a larger vertical cup-disc ratio (age- and sex-adjusted mean, 0.45 vs 0.40; P = .02). The association of PAD with glaucoma persisted while controlling for hypertension, diabetes, body mass index, serum triglyceride levels, and β-blocker use (multivariable-adjusted OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.09-5.98) and was stronger in people with diabetes (multivariable-adjusted OR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.14-7.44).

Conclusions  Peripheral artery disease was related to glaucoma, supporting an association between large-vessel atherosclerotic disease and glaucoma. However, because the study sample included a high proportion of persons with diabetes, further research is needed to determine the relevance of these results to the general population.

  V. S. E Jeganathan , N Cheung , W. T Tay , J. J Wang , P Mitchell and T. Y. Wong

Objective  To describe the prevalence and risk factors of retinopathy in an Asian population without diabetes.

Methods  We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study of 3280 Malays aged 40 to 80 years residing in Singapore. Participants had retinal photographs taken, which were graded for retinopathy signs using the modified Airlie House Classification System. Risk factors were assessed from standardized interviews, clinical examinations, and laboratory investigations.

Results  Of participants without diabetes (n = 2500), 149 (6.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.0-6.9) had signs of retinopathy that represented minimal (5.8%) or mild (0.2%) retinopathy. After adjusting for multiple covariables, higher serum glucose levels (odds ratio [OR], 1.13; 95% CI, 1.00-1.28; per millimole per liter increase), higher systolic blood pressure (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.06-1.25; per 10–mm Hg increase), higher body mass index (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00-1.07 per point increase), and a history of heart attack (OR, 2.68; 95% CI, 1.48-4.83) were significantly associated with the presence of retinopathy lesions in persons without diabetes.

Conclusions  Similar to studies in white individuals, signs of retinopathy are common in Asian persons without diabetes. Early signs of retinopathy in persons without diabetes are related to metabolic and vascular risk factors and may indicate intermediate pathologic changes along the pathway to cardiovascular disease.

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