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Articles by V. E Steele
Total Records ( 8 ) for V. E Steele
  F D`Agostini , L Mastracci , A Izzotti , R Balansky , T. M Pennisi , V. E Steele and S. De Flora

Our discovery that the perinatal period involves nucleotide modifications and gene overexpression in mouse lung prompted us to evaluate whether mice may become more susceptible to cigarette smoke when exposure starts immediately after birth. We previously showed that mainstream cigarette smoke is a quite potent carcinogen in neonatal mice. Further on, we showed that exposure of mice to environmental cigarette smoke (ECS), starting at birth, results in alterations of a variety of intermediate biomarkers. However, after 4 months of exposure to ECS followed by 7 months of recovery in filtered air, the lung tumor yield was rather low. In the present study, we evaluated the protective effects of the glucocorticoid budesonide and of the dietary agent phenethyl isothiocyanate in mice exposed to ECS for 9 months followed by 2 months of recovery. After weanling, the mice exposed to ECS since birth underwent a variety of alterations of molecular and cytogenetical end points, and 11 months after birth, they exhibited significant histopathologic changes, such as pulmonary anthracosis, emphysema, hemorrhagic areas, alveolar bronchiolarization, bronchial hyperplasia, and tumors, both benign and malignant. The carcinogenic response was less evident in dams exposed to ECS under identical conditions. Both phenethyl isothiocyanate and budesonide, administered daily with the diet after weanling, attenuated several alterations of ECS-related biomarkers and moderately protected the lungs from histopathologic alterations, including tumors. Thus, although not as efficiently as the bioassay in mainstream cigarette smoke–exposed mice, the model in neonatal mice is suitable to evaluate both ECS carcinogenicity and its modulation by chemopreventive agents.

  V. E Steele , C. V Rao , Y Zhang , J Patlolla , D Boring , L Kopelovich , M. M Juliana , C. J Grubbs and R. A. Lubet

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) have been highly effective in preventing colon, urinary bladder, and skin cancer preclinically, and also in clinical trials of colon adenoma formation. However, certain NSAIDs cause gastrointestinal ulceration and may increase cardiovascular events. Naproxen seems to cause the lowest cardiovascular events of the common NSAIDs other than aspirin. Nitric oxide (NO)-naproxen was tested based on the finding that adding a NO group to NSAIDs may help alleviate GI toxicity. In the azoxymethane-induced rat colon aberrant crypt foci (ACF) model, naproxen administered at 200 and 400 ppm in the diet reduced mean ACFs in the colon by about 45% to 60%, respectively. NO-naproxen was likewise administered in the diet at roughly equimolar doses (300 and 600 ppm) and reduced total ACF by 20% to 40%, respectively. In the hydroxybutyl (butyl) nitrosamine rat urinary bladder cancer model, NO-naproxen was given at 183 or 550 ppm in the diet, and naproxen at 128 ppm. The NO-naproxen groups had 77% and 73% decreases, respectively, in the development of large urinary bladder tumors, whereas the 128 ppm naproxen group also showed a strong decrease (69%). If treatments were started 3 months after hydroxybutyl (butyl) nitrosamine, NO-naproxen (550 ppm) and naproxen (400 ppm) were also highly effective (86-94% decreases). In the methylnitrosourea-induced mammary cancer model in rats, NO-naproxen and naproxen showed nonsignificant inhibitions (12% and 24%) at 550 and 400 ppm, respectively. These data show that both naproxen and NO-naproxen are effective agents against urinary bladder and colon, but not mammary, carcinogenesis.

  A Izzotti , G. A Calin , V. E Steele , C Cartiglia , M Longobardi , C. M Croce and S. De Flora

We previously showed that exposure to environmental cigarette smoke (ECS) for 28 days causes extensive downregulation of microRNA expression in the lungs of rats, resulting in the overexpression of multiple genes and proteins. In the present study, we evaluated by microarray the expression of 484 microRNAs in the lungs of either ECS-free or ECS-exposed rats treated with the orally administered chemopreventive agents N-acetylcysteine, oltipraz, indole-3-carbinol, 5,6-benzoflavone, and phenethyl isothiocyanate (as single agents or in combinations). This is the first study of microRNA modulation by chemopreventive agents in nonmalignant tissues. Scatterplot, hierarchical cluster, and principal component analyses of microarray and quantitative PCR data showed that none of the above chemopreventive regimens appreciably affected the baseline microRNA expression, indicating potential safety. On the other hand, all of them attenuated ECS-induced alterations but to a variable extent and with different patterns, indicating potential preventive efficacy. The main ECS-altered functions that were modulated by chemopreventive agents included cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, Ras activation, P53 functions, NF-B pathway, transforming growth factor–related stress response, and angiogenesis. Some microRNAs known to be polymorphic in humans were downregulated by ECS and were protected by chemopreventive agents. This study provides proof-of-concept and validation of technology that we are further refining to screen and prioritize potential agents for continued development and to help elucidate their biological effects and mechanisms. Therefore, microRNA analysis may provide a new tool for predicting at early carcinogenesis stages both the potential safety and efficacy of cancer chemopreventive agents. Cancer Prev Res; 3(1); 62–72

  D. L McCormick , J. M Phillips , T. L Horn , W. D Johnson , V. E Steele and R. A. Lubet

Oral squamous cell carcinomas induced in rats by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (NQO) show substantial overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) when compared with adjacent phenotypically normal oral tissues. By contrast, neither 5-lipoxygenase (LOX) nor 12-LOX is overexpressed in rat oral cancers. Two chemoprevention studies were done to test the resulting hypothesis that COX-2 is a useful target for oral cancer chemoprevention in the rat. In both studies, male F344 rats received drinking water exposure to NQO (20 ppm) for 10 weeks, followed by administration of chemopreventive agents from week 10 until study termination at week 26. In the first study, groups of rats were fed basal diet (control), or basal diet supplemented with the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib (500 or 1,500 mg/kg diet), the nonselective COX inhibitor piroxicam (50 or 150 mg/kg diet), or the 5-LOX inhibitor zileuton (2,000 mg/kg diet). In the second study, rats were fed basal diet (control) or basal diet supplemented with nitric oxide–naproxen (180 or 90 mg/kg diet), a nonselective COX inhibitor that shows reduced gastrointestinal toxicity. When compared with dietary controls, celecoxib decreased oral cancer incidence, cancer invasion score, and cancer-related mortality. Piroxicam decreased cancer-related mortality and cancer invasion score, whereas nitric oxide–naproxen decreased oral cancer incidence and cancer invasion score. By contrast, zileuton showed no chemopreventive activity by any parameter assessed. These data show that both selective and nonselective inhibitors of COX-2 can prevent NQO-induced oral carcinogenesis in rats. The chemopreventive activity of COX inhibitors may be linked to overexpression of their enzymatic target in incipient oral neoplasms. Cancer Prev Res; 3(1); 73–81.

  N. B Janakiram , A Mohammed , Y Zhang , C. I Choi , C Woodward , P Collin , V. E Steele and C. V. Rao

Sea cucumber extracts have been widely used to treat individuals with inflammatory conditions in East Asia. The present study has been designed to test potential colon cancer–preventive properties of Frondanol A5, a glycolipid extract from the sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa, using in vivo and in vitro models of colon cancer. Chemopreventive efficacy of Frondanol A5 was evaluated on azoxymethane-induced rat colon carcinogenesis using colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) as efficacy marker. At 7 weeks of age, groups of rats (12 per group) were fed the AIN-76A diet, and ACFs were induced by azoxymethane (15 mg/kg body weight). Three days after azoxymethane treatment, rats were fed with the diets containing 0, 150, and 450 ppm of Frondanol A5 and continued on the diets for 8 weeks, at which time ACFs were evaluated. Expression levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and p21WAF1/CIP1 were determined in ACFs. Further, Frondanol A5 (10-120 µg/mL) was studied for its growth-inhibitory and apoptotic effects in the HCT-116 cell line. Dietary administration of 150 and 450 ppm of Frondanol A5 significantly suppressed azoxymethane-induced total colonic ACF formation, approximately 34% to 55% (P < 0.01 to P < 0.0001), and multicrypt aberrant foci (48-68.5%, P < 0.0001) in a dose-dependent manner. ACFs in rats treated with Frondanol A5 showed significant upregulation of p21WAF1/CIP1 and downregulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen compared with control group. Frondanol A5 showed growth inhibition at S and G2-M phase with a decrease in Cdc25c and an increase in p21WAF1/CIP with significant apoptosis associated with H2AX phosphorylation and caspase-2 cleavage in HCT116 cells. Overall, Frondanol A5 exhibits potential chemopreventive properties for colon carcinogenesis, which suggests further development of this sea cucumber extract. Cancer Prev Res; 3(1); 82–91

  A Mohammed , N. B Janakiram , Q Li , V Madka , M Ely , S Lightfoot , H Crawford , V. E Steele and C. V. Rao

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the most common pancreatic malignancy with a dismal prognosis. Developing novel strategies to prevent or delay pancreatic cancer is currently of intense interest. The chemopreventive efficacy of gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, was evaluated against the progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms (PanIN) to PDAC in conditional LSL-KrasG12D/+ transgenic mice. LSL-KrasG12D/+ and p48Cre/+ mice were bred, and offspring of activated KrasG12D/+ were generated. Six-week-old male KrasG12D/+ (20 per group) and C57BL/6 wild-type (12 per group) mice were fed (AIN-76A) diets containing 0, 100, and 200 ppm of gefitinib for 35 weeks. At termination, pancreases were evaluated histopathologically for PanINs and PDAC, and various biomarkers were measured by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, immunoblotting, and/or reverse transcription-PCR. Dietary gefitinib at 100 and 200 ppm significantly suppressed PDAC incidence by 77% and 100%, respectively (P < 0.0001) when compared with control diet. Importantly, a significant inhibition of carcinoma and a dose-dependent suppression of PanINs [PanIN-1, 37-62% (P < 0.002); PanIN-2, 38-41 (P < 0.001); and PanIN-3, 7-34% (P < 0.0141)] were observed in mice treated with gefitinib. Furthermore, mice treated with 100 and 200 ppm of gefitinib exhibited 67.6% to 77.3% of the pancreas to be free from ductal lesions. Also, gefitinib reduced EGFR, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclin D1, C2GNT, RhoA, β-catenin, p38, phospho-extracellular signal–regulated kinase, caveolin-1, and mucin and increased cyclin B1 in the pancreatic lesions/PDAC. In summary, these results show that gefitinib can prevent the progression of pancreatic cancer precursor lesions to PDAC in a preclinical model. The present study highlights the promise of chemoprevention and the potential usefulness of EGFR inhibitors in individuals at high risk for pancreatic cancer. Cancer Prev Res; 3(11); 1417–26. ©2010 AACR.

  R Balansky , G Ganchev , M Iltcheva , V. E Steele and S. De Flora

Certain adult diseases may have their origin early in life, and perinatal exposures may contribute to cancers both during childhood and later in life. We recently demonstrated that mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) induces a potent carcinogenic response in mice when exposure starts soon after birth. We also showed that the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prevents the extensive nucleotide and gene expression alterations that occur ‘physiologically’ at birth in mouse lung. The present study was designed to evaluate whether administration of NAC during pregnancy may affect the yield of tumors in mice exposed to MCS, starting after birth and continuing for 120 days. The results obtained showed that 210 days after birth, one adenoma only was detectable in sham-exposed mice. In contrast, as much as the 61.1% (33/54) of MCS-exposed mice born from untreated dams had lung tumors, including both benign tumors and bronchoalveolar carcinomas. Treatment with NAC during pregnancy strikingly inhibited the formation of benign lung tumors and totally prevented occurrence of carcinomas. In addition, prenatal NAC inhibited the MCS-induced hyperplasia of the urinary bladder epithelium. These findings demonstrate for the first time that treatment during pregnancy with an antioxidant chemopreventive agent can affect the induction of tumors consequent to exposure to a carcinogen after birth.

  A Izzotti , P Larghero , C Cartiglia , M Longobardi , U Pfeffer , V. E Steele and S. De Flora

Although microRNAs (miRNA) have extensively been investigated in cancer research, less attention has been paid to their regulation by carcinogens and/or protective factors in early stages of the carcinogenesis process. The present study was designed to evaluate the modulation of mRNA expression as related to exposure of neonatal mice to environmental cigarette smoke (ECS) and to treatment with chemopreventive agents. Exposure to ECS started immediately after birth and for 2 weeks after weaning. Thereafter, groups of mice received daily either budesonide (BUD) or phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) with the diet. The expression of 576 miRNAs was evaluated by miRNA microarray in liver and lung. In sham-exposed mice, the expression of miRNAs tended to be higher in liver than in lung. ECS downregulated the expression of a number of miRNAs in lung, whereas mixed alterations were observed in liver. PEITC and BUD did not substantially affect the physiological situation in lung, whereas both agents caused intense variations in liver, reflecting the occurrence of damage mechanisms, such as inflammation, DNA and protein damage, cellular stress, proliferation and apoptosis. PEITC and BUD protected the lung from ECS-induced alterations of miRNA expression but exhibited some adverse effects in liver.

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