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Articles by V Xanthakis
Total Records ( 3 ) for V Xanthakis
  W Lieb , V Xanthakis , L. M Sullivan , J Aragam , M. J Pencina , M. G Larson , E. J Benjamin and R. S. Vasan

Background— Information is limited on the longitudinal tracking of left ventricular (LV) mass over the adult life course and the determinants of such change.

Methods and Results— We used multilevel modeling to evaluate the correlates of LV mass prospectively over a 16-year period in 4217 Framingham study participants (mean age 45 years, 53% women) using up to 4 serial routine echocardiographic observations on each individual (11 762 observations). Age, sex, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive treatment, smoking, and diabetes mellitus were related to longitudinal measures of LV mass. Women and participants with diabetes mellitus experienced a steeper increase in LV mass with advancing age (compared with men and those without diabetes mellitus; P for interactions <0.0001 and 0.0003, respectively). Women also displayed greater increments in LV mass with increasing body mass index (compared with men, P=0.04 for interaction). Participants with optimal values of these risk factors experienced lesser increases in LV mass over time. Analyses evaluating short-term (4-year) changes in LV mass (2605 unique individuals providing 4494 observations) identified the same key determinants that influenced its long-term trajectory (ie, body mass index, sex, systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive treatment, and smoking).

Conclusions— Our longitudinal observations on a large community-based sample identified higher blood pressure, excess adiposity, smoking, and diabetes mellitus as fundamental determinants of LV mass tracking over the adult life course. These observations are consistent with the notion that maintenance of optimal levels of these risk factors in midlife will reduce the burden of LV hypertrophy, and possibly heart failure, in older age.

  W Lieb , J. P Zachariah , V Xanthakis , R Safa , M. H Chen , L. M Sullivan , M. G Larson , H. M Smith , Q Yang , G. F Mitchell , J. A Vita , D. B Sawyer and R. S. Vasan

Experimental studies suggest that endothelial growth factors play an important role in angiogenesis and vascular remodeling. The clinical and genetic correlates of circulating angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) and its soluble receptor/regulator Tie-2 (sTie-2) have not been determined in a community-based sample.

Methods and Results—

Serum Ang-2 and sTie-2 were assayed in 3778 third-generation cohort participants of the Framingham Heart Study (mean age, 40±9 years; 53% women). Clinical correlates and heritability of both biomarkers were assessed using generalized estimating equations and variance-component analyses. Ang-2 levels were higher and sTie-2 levels were lower in women than in men. Ang-2 was positively related to age, smoking, systolic blood pressure, hypertension treatment, and diabetes (P<0.05 for all) but was inversely associated with total cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure (P<0.0001 for both), and sTie-2 was positively associated with body mass index, diabetes, and triglycerides but was inversely related to age, alcohol consumption, and glomerular filtration rate (P<0.05 for all). Both Ang-2 and sTie-2 were higher in participants with metabolic syndrome (P<0.005), with stronger associations of Ang-2 with blood pressure traits and of sTie-2 with obesity-dyslipidemia components. Heritability estimates for Ang-2 and sTie-2 were 27% and 56%, respectively (P<0.0001). A region on chromosome 9 was significantly linked to circulating sTie-2 levels (logarithm of the odds score, 8.31).


Circulating levels of Ang-2 and sTie-2 are heritable traits associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors, including the metabolic syndrome. These observations are consistent with the notion that angiogenesis and vascular remodeling are determined in part by genetic influences and associated with metabolic risk factors.

  E Schwedhelm , V Xanthakis , R Maas , L. M Sullivan , F Schulze , U Riederer , R. A Benndorf , R. H Boger and R. S. Vasan

Background: Accumulating evidence links higher circulating asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) to greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Relatively small differences in ADMA concentrations between healthy individuals and those with disease underscore the need to formulate reference intervals that may aid risk stratification of individuals.

Methods: We formulated reference intervals for plasma ADMA concentrations using a community-based reference sample from the Framingham Offspring Study consisting of 1126 nonsmoking individuals [mean (SD) age 56 (9) years; 60% women] who were free of clinical CVD, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity and who attended a routine examination at which ADMA was assayed. ADMA concentrations were determined using a validated tandem mass spectrometry–liquid chromatography assay.

Results: In the study sample, the mean ADMA concentration was 0.52 (0.11) µmol/L, and the reference limits were 0.311 and 0.732 (2.5th and 97.5th percentile). The sex-specific reference limits were 0.310 and 0.745 in men and 0.313 and 0.721 µmol/L in women. In multivariable regression analysis, ADMA plasma concentrations were positively correlated with age and total plasma homocysteine (both P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Reference limits calculated for circulating ADMA in our large community-based healthy reference sample confirm the previous observation of a relatively narrow distribution of concentrations. This suggests a tight physiological control of ADMA plasma concentrations, presumably by dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) metabolism of ADMA.

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