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Articles by V Kren
Total Records ( 3 ) for V Kren
  Y Wang , F Liska , C Gosele , L Sedova , V Kren , D Krenova , Z Ivics , N Hubner and Z. Izsvak
 

Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) contribute to a range of germline, as well as somatic mutations in mammals. However, autonomous retrotransposition of potentially active elements has not been demonstrated in the rat genome. We cloned an insertion that disrupted the normal splicing of the Cntrob gene that was subsequently identified as a nonautonomous, novel endogenous retrovirus of the RnERV-K8e family. The RnERV-K8e family is closely related to the recently reported MmERV-K10c elements, but differs from the autonomous mouse MusD or IAP families. In addition, we identified a novel, unexpectedly close relative of RnERV-K8e in the mouse, suggesting ERV-K cross-species transmission between mice and rats. We cloned a potentially autonomous RnERV-K8e element identified by in silico analysis and, using an in vitro retrotransposition assay, demonstrated that it is capable of retrotransposition. This particular element (named Rat-, pronounced "retro") encodes a retroviral envelope gene (env); however, env is not required for de novo retrotransposition events. Significant levels of RnERV-K8e-associated genetic polymorphisms were detected among inbred rat strains, suggesting ongoing retrotransposition in the rat genome. This study identifies an ERV-K-type family in rats that shows obvious signs of recent activity. Ongoing retrotranspositional activity may significantly add to genomic variability among inbred rat strains.

  N Kulik , L Weignerova , T Filipi , P Pompach , P Novak , H Mrazek , K Slamova , K Bezouska , V Kren and R. Ettrich
 

Two genes in the genome of Aspergillus niger, aglA and aglB, have been assigned to encode for -d-galactosidases variant A and B. However, analyses of primary and 3D structures based on structural models of these two enzymes revealed significant differences in their active centers suggesting important differences in their specificity for the hydrolyzed carbohydrates. To test this unexpected finding, a large screening of libraries from 42 strains of filamentous fungi succeeded in identifying an enzyme from A. niger CCIM K2 that exhibited both -galactosidase and -N-acetylgalactosaminidase activities, with the latter activity predominating. The enzyme protein was sequenced, and its amino acid sequence could be unequivocally assigned to the enzyme encoded the aglA gene. Enzyme activity measurements and substrate docking clearly demonstrated the preference of the identified enzyme for -N-acetyl-d-galactosaminide over -d-galactoside. Thus, we provide evidence that the -galactosidase type A gene aglA from A. niger in fact encodes a fully functional -N-acetylgalactosaminidase using a retaining mechanism.

  C Bourdon , S Hojna , M Jordan , J Berube , V Kren , M Pravenec , P Liu , S Arab and Z. Pausova
 

Obesity is a leading cause of diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Molecular signals produced by adipose tissue may contribute to the pathogenesis of these two disorders. We showed previously that a specific segment of rat chromosome 20 (RNO20) contains a gene(s) regulating the degree of obesity, glucose intolerance, and hypertension in response to a chronic high-fat diet (HFD). Here we examined microarray gene expression profiles and cellular morphology of adipose tissues and whole body energy expenditure in this model. Adult male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and a congenic strain (SHR.1N) that differs from SHR by the above-mentioned segment of RNO20 were fed for 12 wk with HFD or a normal diet. At the end of this period, whole body energy expenditure was measured with indirect calorimetry. In response to HFD, body weight, fat pad weights, adipocyte size, and serum leptin levels increased significantly more in SHR.1N than SHR. Microarray gene expression profiles [Affymetrix, 15,923 genes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs)] showed that multiple genes of molecular pathways involved in lipogenesis were downregulated to a similar level in both strains, whereas genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and energy dissipation were upregulated less in SHR.1N than SHR. This was associated with lower whole body energy expenditure in SHR.1N than SHR at the end of the 12-wk HFD. Our results suggest that a gene(s) within the RNO20 segment regulate(s) HFD-induced increases in adiposity, and that this effect may be mediated, at least in part, by the impact of that gene(s) on fat burning and energy expenditure.

 
 
 
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