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Articles by V Ionut
Total Records ( 6 ) for V Ionut
  J. M Richey , O. O Woolcott , D Stefanovski , L. N Harrison , D Zheng , M Lottati , I. R Hsu , S. P Kim , M Kabir , K. J Catalano , J. D Chiu , V Ionut , C Kolka , V Mooradian and R. N. Bergman

We investigated whether rimonabant, a type 1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist, reduces visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in dogs maintained on a hypercaloric high-fat diet (HHFD). To determine whether energy expenditure contributed to body weight changes, we also calculated resting metabolic rate. Twenty male dogs received either rimonabant (1.25 mg·kg–1·day–1, orally; n = 11) or placebo (n = 9) for 16 wk, concomitant with a HHFD. VAT, SAT, and nonfat tissue were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Resting metabolic rate was assessed by indirect calorimetry. By week 16 of treatment, rimonabant dogs lost 2.5% of their body weight (P = 0.029), whereas in placebo dogs body weight increased by 6.2% (P < 0.001). Rimonabant reduced food intake (P = 0.027), concomitant with a reduction of SAT by 19.5% (P < 0.001). In contrast with the VAT increase with placebo (P < 0.01), VAT did not change with rimonabant. Nonfat tissue remained unchanged in both groups. Body weight loss was not associated with either resting metabolic rate (r2 = 0.24; P = 0.154) or food intake (r2 = 0.24; P = 0.166). In conclusion, rimonabant reduced body weight together with a reduction in abdominal fat, mainly because of SAT loss. Body weight changes were not associated with either resting metabolic rate or food intake. The findings provide evidence of a peripheral effect of rimonabant to reduce adiposity and body weight, possibly through a direct effect on adipose tissue.

  V Ionut , H Liu , V Mooradian , A. V. B Castro , M Kabir , D Stefanovski , D Zheng , E. L Kirkman and R. N. Bergman

Human type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is often characterized by obesity-associated insulin resistance (IR) and β-cell function deficiency. Development of relevant large animal models to study T2DM is important and timely, because most existing models have dramatic reductions in pancreatic function and no associated obesity and IR, features that resemble more T1DM than T2DM. Our goal was to create a canine model of T2DM in which obesity-associated IR occurs first, followed by moderate reduction in β-cell function, leading to mild diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. Lean dogs (n = 12) received a high-fat diet that increased visceral (52%, P < 0.001) and subcutaneous (130%, P < 0.001) fat and resulted in a 31% reduction in insulin sensitivity (SI) (5.8 ± 0.7 x 10–4 to 4.1 ± 0.5 x 10–4 µU·ml–1·min–1, P < 0.05). Animals then received a single low dose of streptozotocin (STZ; range 30–15 mg/kg). The decrease in β-cell function was dose dependent and resulted in three diabetes models: 1) frank hyperglycemia (high STZ dose); 2) mild T2DM with normal or impaired fasting glucose (FG), 2-h glucose >200 mg/dl during OGTT and 77–93% AIRg reduction (intermediate dose); and 3) prediabetes with normal FG, normal 2-h glucose during OGTT and 17–74% AIRg reduction (low dose). Twelve weeks after STZ, animals without frank diabetes had 58% more body fat, decreased β-cell function (17–93%), and 40% lower SI. We conclude that high-fat feeding and variable-dose STZ in dog result in stable models of obesity, insulin resistance, and 1) overt diabetes, 2) mild T2DM, or 3) impaired glucose tolerance. These models open new avenues for studying the mechanism of compensatory changes that occur in T2DM and for evaluating new therapeutic strategies to prevent progression or to treat overt diabetes.

  D Zheng , V Ionut , V Mooradian , D Stefanovski and R. N. Bergman

The full impact of the liver, through both glucose production and uptake, on systemic glucose appearance cannot be readily studied in a classical glucose clamp because hepatic glucose metabolism is regulated not only by portal insulin and glucose levels but also portal glucose delivery (the portal signal). In the present study, we modified the classical glucose clamp by giving exogenous glucose through portal vein, the "portal glucose infusion (PoG)-glucose clamp", to determine the net hepatic effect on postprandial systemic glucose supply along with the measurement of whole body glucose disposal. By comparing systemic rate of glucose appearance (Ra) with portal glucose infusion rate (PoGinf), we quantified "net hepatic glucose addition (NHGA)" in the place of endogenous glucose production determined in a regular clamp. When PoG-glucose clamps (n = 6) were performed in dogs at basal insulinemia and hyperglycemia (~150 mg/dl, portal and systemic), we measured consistently higher Ra than PoGinf (4.2 ± 0.6 vs. 2.9 ± 0.6 mg·kg–1·min–1 at steady state, P < 0.001) and thus positive NHGA at 1.3 ± 0.1 mg·kg–1·min–1, identifying net hepatic addition of glucose to portal exogenous glucose. In contrast, when PoG-glucose clamps (n = 6) were performed at hyperinsulinemia (~250 pmol/l) and systemic euglycemia (portal hyperglycemia due to portal glucose infusion), we measured consistently lower Ra than PoGinf (13.1 ± 2.4 vs. 14.3 ± 2.4 mg·kg–1·min–1, P < 0.001), and therefore negative NHGA at –1.1 ± 0.1 mg·kg–1·min–1, identifying a switch of the liver from net production to net uptake of portal exogenous glucose. Steady-state whole body glucose disposal was 4.1 ± 0.5 and 13.0 ± 2.4 mg·kg–1·min–1, respectively, determined as in a classical glucose clamp. We conclude that the PoG-glucose clamp, simulating postprandial glucose entry and metabolism, enables simultaneous assessment of the net hepatic effect on postprandial systemic glucose supply as well as whole body glucose disposal in various animal models (rodents, dogs, and pigs) with established portal vein catheterization.

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