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Articles by Ugwu Malachy
Total Records ( 2 ) for Ugwu Malachy
  Adonu Cyril , Gugu Thaddeus , Onyi Patrick , Onwusoba Restus , Ugwueze Mercy , Ugwu Malachy and Esimone Charles
  Plasmid analysis is an important method used in the determination and characterization of antibiotic drug resistance traits in procaryotes. This study is aimed at investigating the prevalence and plasmid profile of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from some domestic livestocks in Enugu State, Nigeria. A total of 559 E. coli isolates from three domestic livestocks comprising pig, cattle and chicken in seven health districts of Enugu State, Nigeria were screened for antibiotic susceptibility and plasmid profiles. The isolates were tested against 9 antibiotics using the agar disc diffusion method while plasmid DNA was extracted using the alkaline SDS method and separated by agarose gel electrophoresis. About 34 of 559 (6.0%) of the isolates were found to be Fluoroquinolone-Resistant E. coli (FQREC). The prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance among the E. coli isolates from the animals tested were: pig (5.7, 6.1, 5.7 and 7.8%), cattle (0, 0, 0 and 0%) and chicken (13.6, 14.3, 11.6and 17.7%) for ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin and pefloxacin, respectively. Very high resistance levels (>63 %) were detected against amoxycillin, erythromycin and doxycycline while gentamicin and ceftriaxone recorded the least resistance levels of 8.3 and 5.2%, respectively against the isolates. Plasmids of different sizes were detected in the isolates. Out of the 24 plasmids detected in the FQREC isolates, 9 different profiles were recorded; 3 in pigs and 6 in chickens. Isolates with high multi-drug resistance profiles were found to possess multiple plasmids with large sizes in the range of 2026-23130 bp. The plasmids were cured to the range of 40-80% depending on the source of the isolates thus, confirming the contribution of plasmid in mediating fluoroquinolone resistance in animal FQREC isolates. There was high prevalence of FQREC isolates in the studied districts and may constitute a potential reservoir of resistance plasmids that could be transferred to pathogenic bacteria.
  Ejikeugwu Chika , Esimone Charles , Iroha Ifeanyichukwu , Igwe David Okeh , Ugwu Malachy , Ezeador Chika , Duru Carissa and Adikwu Michael
  Background and Objective: Globally, infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria still pose a threat to public health. The widespread use of antibiotics in food-animal production allows resistant strains of microbes to evolve. The contamination of the environment with animal wastes (containing resistant bacteria) is a major route via which human populations become infected by these microbes. Metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) is one of the resistance mechanism at the disposal of Gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli that is chiefly responsible for bacteria resistance to the carbapenems. This study evaluated the antibiogram and occurrence of MBL genes from E. coli isolates recovered from abattoir. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 rectal swab samples from cows in a local abattoir were used for this study. Each of the rectal swab samples were bacteriologically analyzed for the presence of MBL-producing E. coli using the inhibition based assay and multiplex PCR technique. Specific primers for blaIMP-1 and blaVIM-1 MBL genes were used for the multiplex PCR analysis. The data were analyzed using SPSS with chi-square test and one-way analysis of variance. Results: A total of 48 (40%) isolates of E. coli was recovered from the 120 rectal swab samples. The E. coli isolates were highly resistant to ceftriaxone (72.9%), cefoxitin (75%), ceftazidime (100%), ertapenem (83.3%), oxacillin (81.3%), ciprofloxacin (70.8%), cefotaxime (93.8%), aztreonam (97.9%) and nitrofurantoin (75%). Of the 48 E. coli isolates from abattoir, 15 (31%) E. coli isolates were phenotypically confirmed to produce MBLs. However, only 8 E. coli isolates were genotypically confirmed to harbour blaIMP-1 gene by the multiplex PCR used in this study. None of the E. coli phenotypes harboured the blaVIM-1 MBL gene. Conclusion: This study reported the first multiplex PCR detection of blaIMP-1 MBL gene in E. coli isolates from rectal swab of cows in Abakaliki, Nigeria. The molecular identification of the genes encoding MBL production in Gram-negative bacteria from community samples is vital for a reliable epidemiological investigation, surveillance and the forestalling of the emergence and spread of these organisms through the food chain and food-producing animals.
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