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Articles by U.K. Pal
Total Records ( 5 ) for U.K. Pal
  P.K. Mandal , A.K. Biswas , K. Choi and U.K. Pal
  Food borne pathogens are a growing concern for human illness and death. There is increasing demands to ensure safe food supply. There is continuous development of methods for the rapid and relible detection of food borne pathogens. Advent of biotechnology has greatly altered food testing methods. Improvements in the field of immunology, molecular biology, automation and computer technology continue to have a positive effect on the development of faster, more sensitive and more convenient methods in food microbiology. Further, development of on-line microbiology, including ATP bioluminescence and cell counting methods, is important for rapid monitoring of cleanliness in HACCP programs. One of the most challenging problems is sample preparation. More research is needed on techniques for separating microorganisms from the food matrix and for concentrating them before detection to ensure food safety, by immunological or nucleic acid-based assays. The possibilities of combining different rapid methods, including immunological and DNA based methods should be further exploited. Further developments in immunoassays and PCR protocols should result in quantitative detection of microorganisms and the simultaneous detection of more than one pathogen or toxin. Lastly, technology continuing to advance at a great pace, the next generation of assays currently being developed potentially has the capability for near real time and online monitoring of multiple pathogens. Modern methods are based on molecular biology techniques like PCR, RFLP, DNA microarray assay, immunological techniques like ELISA, biophysical and biochemical principles with the application of biosensers like bioluminescence sensor, bio-analytical sensors utilizing enzymes, electrical impedometry and flow cytometry. In this review we have tried to summarize the conventional methods and newly developed rapid pathogen detection techniques and the need for newer and rapid methods are discussed.
  U.K. Pal , P.K. Mandal , V.K. Rao and C.D. Das
  The aim of this study was to project the importance and significance of goat milk and milk products with special reference to India. Goats are important component of livestock industry and play a vital role in the socio-economic structure of rural poor. South Asian countries including India, Bangladesh and Pakistan are the major producers of goat milk, whereas, in Europe the most developed dairy goat industry is in France, Greece, Spain and Italy. Indian breeds such as Jamunapuri, Barbari, Beetal, Surti, Jakhrana produce fairly good amount of milk. Goats in Greece and Sardinia produce milk with higher level of total solids, fat and protein. Breeds like Alpine and Saanen produce milk with lower fat, protein and casein contents. Goat milk contains higher amount of Ca, Mg and P than cow and human milk but vitamin D, vitamin B12 and folate contents are less. Goat milk is recommended for infants, old and convalescent people. Three fatty acids viz., caproic, caprylic and capric have great medicinal values for patients suffering from a variety of ailments. In this review we have discussed the goat population and goat milk production, gross composition with nutritive value in terms of energy, minerals and vitamin contents goat milk, details fraction of protein and fat, characteristics of goat milk, medicinal value of goat milk, goat milk products and marketing potential of goat milk and milk products.
  K. Sudheer , C. Das , P.K. Mandal , U.K. Pal and V.K. Rao
  This study was planned to study the quality of low fat restructured chicken block incorporated with gizzards during frozen storage. The partially thawed meat was minced through 8 mm plate and mixed with curing ingredients and water, then filled in stainless steel mould and kept overnight in refrigerator for curing. Next day the filled moulds were cooked in water at 90°C for 45 min then cooled and stored overnight in refrigerator. The next day chicken blocks were obtained from the moulds and sliced (3 mm). This standardized recipe was used as control and over that 40% gizzard and 3% fat was found to be best suited and these two products were studied under frozen (-18°C) storage for 60 days. pH of the product reduced significantly (p<0.05) in the test product on day 40 and 60 and it was higher in the test product in comparison to the control up to 40 day. TBARS and tyrosine values increased significantly (p<0.05) in both test and control product throughout the storage period studied. Standard Plate Count (SPC) and Psychrophillic count (PPC) in test and control product increased significantly (p<0.05), however, coliform and yeast and mould counts were not detected in both the products. In general sensory scores were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the test product than the control. Sensory scores reduced significantly (p<0.05) during the storage period in both the products but remained well above the acceptable range. Based on physicochemical, microbiological and sensory quality it is concluded that the low fat restructured chicken block incorporated with 40% gizzard and 3% fat replacing lean meat could be stored safely at frozen temperature (-18±1°C) for 60 days without any deterioration in quality.
  H.T. Santosh Kumar , U.K. Pal , V. Kesava Rao , C.D. Das and P.K. Mandal
  The present study was planned to find the differences in quality of fresh chicken obtained from different sources with different processing practices viz., market/road side chicken shop (MSC), Retail outlets (RSC) and semi automatic processing plant (Scientifically Slaughtered Chicken) (SSC). The sources of meat had no significant effect (p<0.05) on pH and tyrosine value of fresh chicken meat. However, SSC samples had significantly (p<0.05) higher water holding capacity, extract release volume and lower thiobarbituric acid value compared to other samples. Similarly, SSC samples harboured significantly (p<0.05) lower total viable count, coliform count, psychrophilic count and yeast and mould counts. Sensory evaluation of cooked samples did not reveal any difference in organoleptic attributes viz., appearance, flavour, juiciness and texture but overall palatability scores of SSC meat was significantly (p<0.05) higher than meat from other two sources. It was concluded that SSC meat was of better quality than MSC and RSC meat.
  K.S. Bhuvana , P.K. Mandal and U.K. Pal
  Natural preservation of meat and meat products is one of the important areas of meat science research. It was observed that the traditional pork curry (with addition of Garcinia cambogia fruit extract) of Coorg district, Karnataka, India had a longer shelf-life and higher acceptability. Hence, a study was conducted to assess the bio-preservative effect of the aqueous extract of G. cambogia fruit (Kachampuli in Coorgi). The pork cubes of 1 cm3 were marinated with salt (1.75%) and dry spice mixture (2%), shallow fried in low flame for 45 min in sunflower oil (10%) along with the green curry stuff. The aqueous extract of G. cambogia fruit was added at levels of 1 and 2%. The treated products along with a control were stored at room temperature analyzed for physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory quality. The results indicated that the pH of the pork fry was significantly (p<0.05) lower in the treatment 1 and 2 (5.32 and 5.1) compared to the control (5.84). The Thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) and tyrosine values of the pork fry with 1% extract (1.65 mg malonaldehyde kg-1 and 5.57 mg kg-1) were also significantly (p<0.05) lower than that of the control (1.94 mg malonaldehyde kg-1 and 6.73 mg kg-1). The standard plate count remained within safe limits up to 6th day of storage in case of the treatments (3.84 log colony forming units gram-1) whereas, the control samples with SPC of 4.92 log CFU g-1 deteriorated after 48 h of preparation. The flavor, texture, juiciness and overall acceptability were better for both the treated pork fry throughout the study. The use of aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia fruit at 1% level was optimum for the room temperature preservation of the pork fry for about six days.
 
 
 
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