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Articles by U.I. Ibrahim
Total Records ( 2 ) for U.I. Ibrahim
  A.W. Mbaya and U.I. Ibrahim
  Reports on the in vivo and in vitro activities of medicinal plants on haemic and humoral trypanosomes showed that several medicinal plants, worldwide, possessed trypanocidal or trypanostatic activity. The choice of specific plants by researchers were based on their trypanocidal claims as documented in ancient pharmacopoeia, knowledge from traditional healers, herdsmen, village elders and feeding habits of large primates. The plants were subjected to various methods of extraction. The choice of extraction method depended largely on the part of the plan to be tested and often, fractionated through thin layer chromatography, infrared spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to yield bioactive components. This was with a view of elucidating structural components and possible synthesis of new trypanocides. The commonly encountered active principles in the extracts were saponins, terepins, phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, anthraquinones, columbins, neolignan, quinines, phlobatanin, resins and alkaloids. These fractions, produced efficacy ether singly or synergistically at dosages (<800 mg kg-1) in vivo, leading to the elimination of parasitaemia, modulating declined red cell indices and the alleviation of clinical signs of trypanosomosis. Most of the extracts however, produced effect in vitro within minutes of application in a graded dose manner. The extracts in most cases produced signs of acute toxicity (in vivo) at dosages (>800 mg kg-1) leading to degenerative changes in vital organs. Signs of cytotoxicity were also encountered in vitro on various cell lines. Therefore, the folkloric medicinal applications of plants for the treatment of trypanosomosis have a pharmacological basis. This may therefore, lead to the synthesis of new, cheap and easily available trypanocides of less toxicity.
  Y.A. Geidam , U.I. Ibrahim , H.A. Grema , K.A. Sanda , A. Suleiman and D.L. Mohzo
  Antibiotics are still deemed necessary for the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in farm animals intended for food production and to protect public health from food-borne diseases. One possible approach to the resistance problem is the appropriate use of antibiotics for prevention and treatment of infections. A survey was conducted to determine the antibiotic usage in poultry farms and the brand of antibiotics sold over the counter in drug outlets. Reputable poultry farms and drug outlets were identified and questionnaires were administered to 20 poultry farmers. A yes or no type of response was developed to assess level of reported purchase and use of antibiotics without prescriptions. Majority of the respondents (80%) agreed to have purchased an antibiotic without a prescription and the most commonly named antibiotics used by poultry farmers was Tetracycline (Oxytetracycline) 36.5%. It was available in all the drug stores (100%) visited. This was followed by amino glycosides (Neomycin) with 15.2% in poultry farms and 27.2% in drug stores. The widespread access to antibiotics without prescription with resultant inappropriate use, may lead to increased development of resistant strains.
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