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Articles by Toqeer Ahmed
Total Records ( 3 ) for Toqeer Ahmed
  Rashida Kanwal , Toqeer Ahmed and Bushra Mirza
  Milk is nearly complete food and contains all the essential components in nearly balanced form. In the present study, the milk of four different species like goat, cow, buffalo and sheep milk, was analyzed compositionally and results showed that the cow milk have highest LR and specific gravity i.e., 30.0 and 1.03, respectively than other three species i.e. buffalo, goat and sheep. The cow milk showed maximum pH value (6.65) while sheep milk samples showed maximum titratable acidity (0.181%). The minimum pH value (6.58) was of sheep milk while the minimum titratable acidity (0.15%) was of the cow milk samples. The results of fat (%) showed that buffalo, cow, goat milk are non-significantly different from each other but sheep milk is significantly different from other three species. However, the results of SNF found in this study showed significant difference (P<0.05) among the milk of buffalo (8.79%) and of goat milk (8.92%). In contrast, the SNF of milk samples obtained from cow and sheep (9.17 and 9.71%, respectively). The results showed that the sheep milk had the good range (5.32-7.74%) of protein and the highest average protein contents (6.57%). However the milk of cow (5.23%) and buffalo (3.87%) were significantly different from each other and from sheep milk. The milk of goat showed the lowest protein contents (2.38%) as compare to other species. Sheep milk has highest%age of total nitrogen (1.035) contents as compared to other three species and hence significantly different from them and in %age non-protein nitrogen values of sheep milk showed the highest value (0.0059) and goat milk showed the least value (0.0013). Sheep milk showed the lowest lactose contents (3.57%) while goat milk showed highest value (4.66%). Sheep milk had highest value (0.58%) of ash contents while the goat milk showed the lowest value (0.28%). Cow milk was found best according to this study as compared to the milk samples of other three species i.e. Buffalo, goat and sheep.
  Toqeer Ahmed , Rashida Kanwal , S.S. Tahir and Naseem Rauf
  In present study, drinking surface water of different dams, located in Rawalpindi / Islamabad region, was analyzed. Water samples were observed bacteriologically for total viable count and total coliform count by heterotrophic plate count and MPN method. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from water samples collected from different dams and related filtration plants and identified by different bio-chemical tests. Water samples contain different pathogenic bacteria like Bacillus cereus, E. aerogens, S. aureus, E. coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and Streptobacillus spp. In all filtration plants, chlorine, a sterilizing agent and the main co-agulant, Alum sulphate, was used. Growth of Coliforms was observed after chlorination in water samples, collected from Rawal dam filtration plant. While no growth of any microorganisms was observed after chlorination in case of Simly dam and Khanpur dam filtration plants but water sample taken from storage of Khanpur filtration plant after filtration and chlorination, was also contaminated. The objective of this study was to check the quality of drinking water and comparative analysis of different dams (Rawal, Simly and Khanpur) and related filtration plants which supplying water for drinking and other purposes to different inhabitants of Rawalpindi and Islamabad after filtration and chlorination.
  Rashida Kanwal , Toqeer Ahmed , S.S. Tahir and Naseem Rauf
  In present study, drinking ground water of different sectors of Islamabad was analyzed. Twenty-three water samples were collected in sterile bottles from different tube wells located in various sectors of Islamabad. These water samples were observed microbiologically for total viable count (TVC) and coliform count by heterotrophicplate count and MPN method, respectively. Different pathogenic bacteria were isolated and identified. Water samples of tube well number 101 and 138 were found to be contaminated and showed the presence of E.coli while the all other tube wells were contaminated with B. cereus. These bacterial species were isolated and then the tolerance of these isolated strains were checked in the presence of metals like Pb, Cu, Fe, Mn and As at different concentration (from 0.5 to 10 ppm). Results revealed that these bacteria successfully survive in these toxic conditions. As shown in results that E.coli has the ability to survive at 10 ppm of As but B. cereus can survive at 10 ppm of Mn and As. While no growth of E.coli and B. cereus was observed at 10 ppm of other metals like Pb, Cu and Fe.
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