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Articles by Tia M. Rains
Total Records ( 2 ) for Tia M. Rains
  Kevin C. Maki , Dustie N. Butteiger , Tia M. Rains , Andrea Lawless , Matthew S. Reeves , Chuck Schasteen and Elaine S. Krul
 

Background

Soy protein (SP) and low-fat dairy product consumption have been suggested to have hypocholesterolemic effects, although the responsible mechanisms are poorly understood.

Objective

This randomized, controlled, parallel arm trial evaluated the effects of an insoluble fraction of SP and total milk proteins (TMPs) with high calcium content on the fasting lipid profile. It also assessed the potential contributions of increased excretion of bile acids and neutral sterols to their lipid-altering effects.

Methods

Subjects with hypercholesterolemia (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] 100−199 mg/dL) followed the Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes diet for 4 weeks, followed by a 2-week lead-in with 3.75 g/d colesevelam HCl. Individuals with LDL-C lowering of ≥5.0% with colesevelam HCl were randomly assigned to one of two groups after a 3-week washout: 1) 25 g/d of an insoluble fraction of partially hydrolyzed SP or 2) 25 g/d TMP.

Results

Both SP and TMP reduced atherogenic lipoproteins, as indicated by changes in total cholesterol (−7.4% and −3.6%), LDL-C (−10.9% and −5.9%), nonhigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol (−10.8% and −3.9%), and apolipoprotein B (−9.7% and −2.4%), respectively (P < .05 for between group differences except LDL-C, P = .085). No significant increases were observed in either group for fecal bile acids or neutral sterols.

Conclusion

These results confirm that SP consumption exerts a hypocholesterolemic effect and indicate that TMP elicits a less pronounced response. However, these findings do not support the hypothesis that increased bile acid excretion is an important contributor to the hypocholesterolemic effects of either protein source.

  Kevin C. Maki , Mary E. Van Elswyk , Dominik D. Alexander , Tia M. Rains , Eugenia L. Sohn and Shalene McNeill
 

Background

Limited consumption of red meat, including beef, is one of many often-suggested strategies to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the role that beef consumption specifically plays in promoting adverse changes in the cardiovascular risk factor profile is unclear.

Objective

A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled, clinical trials (RCTs) was conducted to evaluate the effects of beef, independent of other red and processed meats, compared with poultry and/or fish consumption, on lipoprotein lipids.

Methods

RCTs published from 1950 to 2010 were considered for inclusion. Studies were included if they reported fasting lipoprotein lipid changes after beef and poultry/fish consumption by subjects free of chronic disease. A total of 124 RCTs were identified, and 8 studies involving 406 subjects met the prespecified entry criteria and were included in the analysis.

Results

Relative to the baseline diet, mean ± standard error changes (in mg/dL) after beef versus poultry/fish consumption, respectively, were −8.1 ± 2.8 vs. −6.2 ± 3.1 for total cholesterol (P = .630), −8.2 ± 4.2 vs. −8.9 ± 4.4 for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = .905), −2.3 ± 1.0 vs. −1.9 ± 0.8 for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = .762), and −8.1 ± 3.6 vs. −12.9 ± 4.0 mg/dL for triacylglycerols (P = .367).

Conclusion

Changes in the fasting lipid profile were not significantly different with beef consumption compared with those with poultry and/or fish consumption. Inclusion of lean beef in the diet increases the variety of available food choices, which may improve long-term adherence with dietary recommendations for lipid management.

 
 
 
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