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Articles by Thurl E. Harris
Total Records ( 2 ) for Thurl E. Harris
  Anil Kumar , Thurl E. Harris , Susanna R. Keller , Kin M. Choi , Mark A. Magnuson and John C. Lawrence Jr.
  Rictor is an essential component of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) complex 2 (mTORC2), a kinase complex that phosphorylates Akt at Ser473 upon activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3 kinase). Since little is known about the role of either rictor or mTORC2 in PI-3 kinase-mediated physiological processes in adult animals, we generated muscle-specific rictor knockout mice. Muscle from male rictor knockout mice exhibited decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and the mice showed glucose intolerance. In muscle lacking rictor, the phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 was reduced dramatically in response to insulin. Furthermore, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the Akt substrate AS160 at Thr642 was reduced in rictor knockout muscle, indicating a defect in insulin signaling to stimulate glucose transport. However, the phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308 was normal and sufficient to mediate the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3). Basal glycogen synthase activity in muscle lacking rictor was increased to that of insulin-stimulated controls. Consistent with this, we observed a decrease in basal levels of phosphorylated glycogen synthase at a GSK-3/protein phosphatase 1 (PP1)-regulated site in rictor knockout muscle. This change in glycogen synthase phosphorylation was associated with an increase in the catalytic activity of glycogen-associated PP1 but not increased GSK-3 inactivation. Thus, rictor in muscle tissue contributes to glucose homeostasis by positively regulating insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and negatively regulating basal glycogen synthase activity.
  Lifu Wang , Thurl E. Harris , John C. Lawrence and Jr
  The rapamycin-sensitive mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) contains mTOR, raptor, mLST8, and PRAS40 (proline-rich Akt substrate of 40 kDa). PRAS40 functions as a negative regulator when bound to mTORC1, and it dissociates from mTORC1 in response to insulin. PRAS40 has been demonstrated to be a substrate of mTORC1, and one phosphorylation site, Ser-183, has been identified. In this study, we used two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping in conjunction with mutational analysis to show that in addition to Ser-183, mTORC1 also phosphorylates Ser-212 and Ser-221 in PRAS40 when assayed in vitro. Mutation of all three residues to Ala markedly reduces mTORC1-mediated phosphorylation of PRAS40 in vitro. All three sites were confirmed to be phosphorylated in vivo by [32P]orthophosphate labeling and peptide mapping. Phosphorylation of Ser-221 and Ser-183 but not Ser-212 is sensitive to rapamycin treatment. Furthermore, we demonstrate that mutation of Ser-221 to Ala reduces the interaction with 14-3-3 to the same extent as mutation of Thr-246, the Akt/protein kinase B-phosphorylated site. We also find that mutation of Ser-221 to Ala increases the inhibitory activity of PRAS40 toward mTORC1. We propose that after mTORC1 kinase activation by upstream regulators, PRAS40 is phosphorylated directly by mTOR, thus contributing to the relief of PRAS40-mediated substrate competition.
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