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Articles by Thomas M. Peters
Total Records ( 3 ) for Thomas M. Peters
  Douglas E. Evans , William A. Heitbrink , Thomas J. Slavin and Thomas M. Peters
  Ultrafine particle number and respirable particle mass concentrations were measured throughout an automotive grey iron foundry during winter, spring and summer using a particle concentration mapping procedure. Substantial temporal and spatial variability was observed in all seasons and attributed, in part, to the batch nature of operations, process emission variability and frequent work interruptions. The need for fine mapping grids was demonstrated, where elevations in particle concentrations were highly localized. Ultrafine particle concentrations were generally greatest during winter when incoming make-up air was heated with direct fire, natural gas burners. Make-up air drawn from roof level had elevated respirable mass and ultrafine number concentrations above ambient outdoor levels, suggesting inadvertent recirculation of foundry process emissions. Elevated respirable mass concentrations were highly localized on occasions (e.g. abrasive blasting and grinding), depended on the area within the facility where measurements were obtained, but were largely unaffected by season. Particle sources were further characterized by measuring their respective number and mass concentrations by particle size. Sources that contributed to ultrafine particles included process-specific sources (e.g. melting and pouring operations), and non-process sources (e.g. direct fire natural gas heating units, a liquid propane-fuelled sweeper and cigarette smoking) were additionally identified.
  Kirsten A. Koehler and Thomas M. Peters
  Exposure or hazard mapping is becoming increasingly popular among industrial hygienists. Direct-reading instruments used for hazard mapping of data collection are steadily increasing in reliability and portability while decreasing in cost. Exposure measurements made with these instruments generally require no laboratory analysis although hazard mapping can be a time-consuming process. To inform decision making by industrial hygienists and management, it is crucial that the maps generated from mapping data are as accurate and representative as possible. Currently, it is unclear how many sampling locations are necessary to produce a representative hazard map. As such, researchers typically collect as many points as can be sampled in several hours and interpolation methods are used to produce higher resolution maps. We have reanalyzed hazard-mapping data sets from three industrial settings to determine which interpolation methods yield the most accurate results. The goal is to provide practicing industrial hygienists with some practical guidelines to generate accurate hazard maps with ‘off-the-shelf’ mapping software. Visually verifying the fit of the variogram model is crucial for accurate interpolation. Exponential and spherical variogram models performed better than Gaussian models. It was also necessary to diverge from some of the default interpolation parameters such as the number of bins used for the experimental variogram and whether or not to allow for a nugget effect to achieve reasonable accuracy of the interpolation for some data sets.
  Donna J. H. Vosburgh , Bon Ki Ku and Thomas M. Peters
  The model DC2000CE diffusion charger from EcoChem Analytics (League City, TX, USA) has the potential to be of considerable use to measure airborne surface area concentrations of nanoparticles in the workplace. The detection efficiency of the DC2000CE to reference instruments was determined with monodispersed spherical particles from 54 to 565.7nm. Surface area concentrations measured by a DC2000CE were then compared to measured and detection efficiency adjusted reference surface area concentrations for polydispersed aerosols (propylene torch exhaust, incense, diesel exhaust, and Arizona road dust) over a range of particle sizes that may be encountered in a workplace. The ratio of surface area concentrations measured by the DC2000CE to that measured with the reference instruments for unimodal and multimodal aerosols ranged from 0.02 to 0.52. The ratios for detection efficiency adjusted unimodal and multimodal surface area concentrations were closer to unity (0.93-1.19) for aerosols where the majority of the surface area was within the size range of particles used to create the correction. A detection efficiency that includes the entire size range of the DC2000CE is needed before a calibration correction for the DC2000CE can be created. For diesel exhaust, the DC2000CE retained a linear response compared to reference instruments up to 2500mm2 m-3, which was greater than the maximum range stated by the manufacturer (1000mm2 m-3). Physical limitations with regard to DC2000CE orientation, movement, and vibration were identified. Vibrating the DC2000CE while measuring aerosol concentrations may cause an increase of ~35mm2 m-3, whereas moving the DC2000CE may cause concentrations to be inflated by as much as 400mm2 m-3. Depending on the concentration of the aerosol of interest being measured, moving or vibrating a DC2000CE while measuring the aerosol should be avoided.
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