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Articles by Tadelle Dessie
Total Records ( 9 ) for Tadelle Dessie
  Meseret Girma , Berhan Tamir and Tadelle Dessie
  One hundred and eighty 26-week old Rhode Island Red chicken were used to determine the performance, fertility, hatchability and economic of chicken fed with ration containing Peanut Seed Cake (PSC) and Brewery Dried Yeast (BDY). The treatments were T1 (20% PSC + 0% BDY), T2 (15% PSC + 5% BDY), T3 (10% PSC + 10% BDY), T4 (5% PSC + 15% BDY), T5 (0% PSC + 20% BDY) and T6 as control (commercial layer’s ration) and the experiment lasted for 12 weeks. The experiment was arranged in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with six treatments, each replicated two times with 15 birds per replicate. Hens were individually weighed at the start and end of the experiment. Data on Dry Matter Intake (DMI), Hen Day Egg Production (HDEP), egg weight and were recorded daily. Egg quality parameters were determined at an interval of 3 days on 6 eggs per replicate. The chemical analysis showed that BDY contained 41.2% CP and 2982.04 kcal ME/kg DM and PSC 42.2% CP and 2842.5 kcal ME/kg DM, indicating their potential to be used as sources of both protein and energy in poultry feeding. DMI of birds on T3 and T4 were similar with that of birds on control diet, but diet T5 resulted in significantly increased DMI than control diet. Diets T1 and T2 resulted in a significantly (p<0.05) decreased DMI than control diet. Final body weight and body weight gain of birds was significantly lower (p<0.05) for T1 and T2 than that of birds on T4. Birds on T3 had higher HDEP compared to birds on control ration. Diet containing T4 resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in egg weight than that of birds on T2 and control diet but the diet containing T1 resulted in a significantly decreased (p<0.05) egg weight than control diet and other treatment groups. Birds on T4, T5, T3 and T2 showed better results in fertility than control and T1. Similarly birds in T2, T3, T4 and T5 were better in hatchability than the birds in control and T1. Eggs of birds on T3, T4 and T5 showed higher yolk color value than birds on control diet. Birds of treatment T3 had lower feed cost per dozen of egg than control, indicating the importance of this form of combination for feeding layers as least cost ration than that of the birds on control. The results also showed that initial body weight, feed efficiency, albumen height in terms of Haugh unit, shell thickness and egg sale to feed cost ratio did not vary (p>0.05) among dietary treatments. Brewery dried yeast could be included in Rhode Island Red chicken feed in order to increase fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs, yolk color and it also increase egg mass. Based on the results of this study, T3 (10% BDY + 10% PSC) or 50% replacement of BDY by PSC appeared to be a diet of good feeding value, more economical or reasonably cheaper ration which can be used as protein supplement in formulation of layers ration without adverse effects on egg laying performance of pullets between 26-38 weeks of age.
  Etalem Tesfaye , Getachew Animut , Mengistu Urge and Tadelle Dessie
  A total of 300 Hubbard Classic day-old broiler chicks were randomly distributed into 15 pens equally, representing 5 feeding treatments to evaluate the performance of chicks fed varying dietary levels of Moringa Olifera Leaf Meal (MOLM) replacing soybean meal (SBM) up to the age of 56 days. Treatments were inclusion of MOLM at 0 (T1), 5 (T2), 10 (T3), 15 (T4) and 20% (T5). Four birds 2 from each sex were randomly selected from each replication for carcass evaluation at the end of the study. From the same birds used for carcass evaluation, blood was taken for serum Total Cholesterol (TC) and Total Protein (TP) determination. The crude protein content of MOLM was 28%. Daily Dry Matter (DM) intake during the entire experimental period ranged 54 to 75 g/bird and was greater (P<0.05) for T1 than T3 and T5. Daily body weight gain for the entire experimental period were 29, 25, 22, 22 and 17g (SEM = 1.0) for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively and values were greater for T1 as compared to T3, T4 and T5 but similar (P>0.05) with T2. Replacement of MOLM for SBM lowered (P<0.05) yield of most parameters such as dressed weight, eviscerated weight, breast weight, thigh weight, drumstick weight and giblet weight. Sex differences were significant in drumstick weight and drumstick and thigh percentages with greater values for males than females. Conversely, eviscerated percentage was greater (P<0.05) for females than males. Levels of TC and TP were greater for T3 than T1, T4 and T5 (P<0.05). However, differences in TC and TP levels due to sex were not significant (P>0.05). Depending on the production parameters measured, MOLM can be substituted to SBM in broilers diet up to a level of 5% inclusion in the total ration without negative effect on biological performance. Levels of MOLM substitution to SBM of 10-20% appeared to reduce growth rate but did not have an adverse effect on the health of birds, indicating the potential of the plant as an alternative feed ingredient in poultry feeding.
  Etalem Tesfaye , Getachew Animut , Mengistu Urge and Tadelle Dessie
  A total of 300 day-old Hubbard Classic broiler chicks with initial body weight (BW) of 43.6±1.33 (mean±SD) were randomly and equally distributed into 15 pens, representing five feeding treatments with three replication per treatment to evaluate the performance of chicks fed varying dietary levels of cassava root chips (CRC) replacing corn grain (CG). Treatments were replacement of CG with CRC at 0 (T1), 25 (T2), 50 (T3), 75 (T4) and 100% (T5) levels. Isocaloric and isonitrogenous starter and finisher rations were used. Four birds 2 from each sex were randomly taken from each replication and slaughtered for carcass evaluation at the end of the study. The metabolizable energy content of CRC and CG were 3852 and 3753 kcal/kg dry matter (DM), respectively. Daily DM intake during the entire experimental period ranged 61 to 67 g/bird and was greater (P<0.05) for T5 than T3 and T4, while values for T1 was similar with other treatments. Change in BW, daily BW gain and DM conversion efficiency were similar (P>0.05) among treatments. Replacement of CRC for CG at higher levels (75 and 100%) lowered (P<0.05) yield of most carcass parameters such as slaughter weight, dressed weight, eviscerated weight, breast weight, thigh weight, drumstick weight and giblet weight. The same carcass parameters were greater (P<0.05) for male than female birds but abdominal fat percentage was higher for females. In conclusion, based on DM intake and growth performance of broilers obtained in this study, CRC could completely replace corn grain in broiler diets as energy feed ingredient. However, looking on the results of yields of major carcass parameters, CRC should substitute corn grain not more than 50%.
  Addisu Hailu , Martina Kyallo , Tilahun Yohannes , Wagaw Sendeku , Addis Getu , Shimelis Dagnachew , Muluken Dejen , Yidnekachew Wolde , Flipos Engdaw , Alayu Kidane , Tadelle Dessie , Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn , Dedan Githae and Roger Pelle
  Background and Objective: The indigenous chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) are widely distributed all part of Ethiopia and remain as the main animal protein source for humans. Even though few marker-based molecular characterizations have been conducted on them, none of them used the LEI0258 microsatellite. Therefore, this research project was initiated to see the polymorphism of the LEI0258 microsatellite marker in the Ethiopian indigenous chickens and its potential to study indigenous chicken ecotypes. Materials and Methods: 2-5 mL of the blood sample was collected from 25-30 chicken per sample site. Then, total genomic DNA was extracted using a Qiagen DNA extraction kit followed by PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing. Results: Thirty-seven forms of LEI0258 were identified and the marker has been found as highly polymorphic with polymorphic information content (PIC) of 0.9288. The marker was employed to analyze the pairwise genetic distance between ecotypes. As a result, the lowest genetic distance was observed between Gema Gemmedaa and Ahun Tegegn ecotypes (0.4950). The highest genetic distance was observed between Sarbo and Gelego ecotypes (0.8324). The nine chicken ecotypes sampled in a different part of the country grouped into three major clusters. The naked neck chicken ecotype was isolated from the others and forms a separate cluster. Conclusion: The majority of LEI0258 microsatellite forms are found in at least in two ecotypes, although there are a few alleles unique to a particular ecotype.
  Getachew Bekele , Gebeyehu Goshu , Aberra Melesse , Wondmeneh Esatu and Tadelle Dessie

Background and Objective: The first phase of characterization of indigenous chicken involves the identification of population based on morphological descriptors that can also provide useful information on the suitability of breeds for selection. The study was conducted to characterize on-farm phenotypic and morphological features of indigenous chicken population in selected districts of Gambella regional state, Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: Both purposive and random sampling techniques were used to collect the data and assessed through a semi-structured questionnaire survey. Data on visual appraisal and linear body measurements were obtained from a total of 600 matured local chickens of both sexes taken from 384 households. Linear body measurements were analyzed using the generalized linear model procedures. Results: The majority of the male chickens possessed red plumage color (30.5%) and most of chicken populations had single combs (80.84%), plain head shape (96.5%), yellow shanks color (85.34%) and feathered Shanks (1.67%). The male chickens were generally heavier (1.38 kg) than the female chickens (1.16 kg). The mean for body length, shank length, keel bone length, wingspan, wattle length, comb length and comb height of the cocks were 39.76, 10.19, 11.66, 65.77, 3.44, 5.28 and 2.15 cm, respectively. Conclusion: Variation in qualitative traits such as plumage color, feather distribution, comb type, earlobe color, shank feather, head shape and shank color indigenous chickens were evaluated in the study areas. The dominant plumage colour of the cocks was red followed by black and Gebsima (greyish with varying mixture) with other colors and in hens brown color followed by black and white.

  Berhanu Bekele , Aberra Melesse , Wondmeneh Esatu and Tadelle Dessie

Objective: This study was conducted to determine the relationship between live body weight and linear body measurements and to establish a model for predicting body weight using linear body parameters of the indigenous chickens of Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: A total of 520 adult chickens (130 males and 390 females) were randomized from three agro-ecologies (120 from lowland, 200 from midland and 200 from highland). Body parameters including beak length, body length, breast circumference, comb length, ear lobe length, shank circumference, shank length, wattle length and wingspan were measured using flexible measuring tape. Data were analyzed using SAS and SPSS. Results: Agro-ecology had significant effect (p<0.05) on body length, live body weight, breast circumference, shank circumference, shank length and wingspan. In indigenous chickens, the strong, positive and significant (p<0.05) correlation of body weight with breast circumference, body length and shank length indicate that, these variables could provide a good estimate in predicting body weight of chicken. Body length, chest circumference and shank length showed highest R2 (0.599, 0.517 and 0.382), respectively. This indicates that 59.9, 51.7 and 38.2% of body weight variation in indigenous chicken of Ethiopia depends on body length, breast circumference and shank length, respectively. Equivalently, linear measurements with highest R2 imply that they could be the best predictors of body weight of indigenous chickens in Ethiopia. Live body weight had significant (p<0.05) association with the linear body measurements; body length, chest circumference, shank length and wingspan to which the model has been subjected. Therefore, multiple linear regression model relating body weight and linear body measurements of Ethiopian indigenous chicken is Ŷ = -0.949+0.039BoL+0.037SL+0.026BC+0.006WS. Conclusion: Body length, shank length and breast circumference can be used to predict body weight of Ethiopian indigenous chicken compared to the other linear body measurements.

  Grum Gebreyesus , Aynalem Haile and Tadelle Dessie
  This study was conducted on randomly selected whole-flocks of the short-eared Somali goat kept under extensive pastoral production systems around Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia to obtain some prediction equation between live weight and various linear body measurements. Both male and female goats with five different dentition groups were included in this study. Live weight was regressed on the body measurements separately for males and females for each dentition class and for the pooled data by sex categories. All the parameters contributed significantly (p<0.05) to the model for the pooled data of female age groups depicting an R2-value of 85%. In the males using the pooled data for all dentition groups (0-4PPI), four parameters (chest girth, body length, body condition and pelvic width) contributed significantly (p<0.05) to the model giving an R2-value of 91%. However, chest girth was the only regressor that consistently significantly (p<0.01) contributed to the regression models across all age and sex groups.
  Grum Gebreyesus , Aynalem Haile and Tadelle Dessie
  A study was conducted to assess the growth performance of the short-eared Somali goat breed in Eastern Ethiopia and quantify the effect of age and production site on these parameters. The quantitative traits recorded from linear body measurements of the adult female population (≥3PPI) averaged 21.86±2.89 kg, 56.42±3.53 cm, 65.39±3.68 cm, 60.95±2.82 cm, 7.78±1.18 and 13.89±1.04 cm for body weight, body length, chest girth, height at withers, chest width and pelvic width, respectively. The corresponding values for the male population were 24.17±4.75 kg, 57.36±4.53 cm, 66.78±5.97 cm, 63.6±3.83 cm, 7.8±1.33 cm and 13.66±1.52 cm, respectively. Effects of age (dentition group) on body weight and linear measurements was estimated using least square means to assess the growth trend in male and female animals of the population.
  Mekonnen Girma , Mahendra Pal , Tadelle Dessie , Wondmeneh Esatu , Wondu Mamo and Simenew Keskes
  A cross sectional study was conducted on 384 chicken raised under traditional management system in four villages of Bishoftu area using Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) test for the detection of antibodies against Newcastle Disease (ND) virus in serum samples collected from chickens with no history of vaccination and apparently healthy during December 2011 to April 2012. An overall sero-positive rate of 23.4% was recorded in this study. The differences in sero-prevalence however, were not significant (p>0.05) among village, sex, age, flock size, feeding system, source of chicken and contact with wild birds. However, housing system had a significant difference (p<0.05) on sero-prevalence rate of the disease. The fact that most of the chicken originated from village had low HI titer (about 54.4%, ≤2 log2) warrant the need to systematic consideration for disease prevention strategy in the village chicken. Detailed further study on ND virus strain identification, a survey of major poultry diseases and improved management packages should be devised.
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