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Articles by T.M. Vijayakumar
Total Records ( 5 ) for T.M. Vijayakumar
  T.M. Vijayakumar , D. Sathyavati , T. Subhashini , S. Grandhi and M.D. Dhanaraju
  Medically inappropriate and economically inefficient use of medicines is observed throughout the world. This study was carried out to evaluate the prescription rationality and drug prescribing practice of physicians in East Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Prescriptions of 690 patients were collected over a period of three months. Average number of drugs per prescription was found to be 3.01. Only 27.3% of drugs were prescribed in generic names. More than four drugs were prescribed in 208 prescriptions. The 17.3% of cardiovascular drugs were prescribed commonly. A total of 26 drug-drug interactions were detected in 18 of the prescriptions. The 41.6% drugs were not in accordance with WHO essential drug list. Approximately 32% of Prescriptions were not mentioned about strength, dose, frequency and duration of administration of the drugs. The 16.8% of prescriptions contain Fixed Dose Combination (FDC). Majority of fixed dose combinations were prescribed for cardiovascular patients and diabetic patients. The drugs prescribed in the generic names were remarkably lower. Majority of the prescribed drugs were not followed the WHO model essential list. Irrational prescribing can be avoided by sticking to the ideal prescription writing. This study revealed that a lot of scope for prescriber education to improve prescribing patterns.
  Bandaru Yeswanth Raja , Kolli Sowjanya , Manithottiyle Angelo Simon and T.M. Vijayakumar
  Background and Objective: Hospital pharmacists are the most voluntarily convenient health professionals within their communities. Pharmaceutical care is the provision of drug therapy for the purpose of achieving definite outcomes to improve the patient’s quality of life. Pharmacists play a key role in providing quality health care to patients and use their clinical skill together with practical knowledge to ensure the safe supply and use of medicines by patients and members of public. The practice of pharmaceutical care should be new and updated. Therefore, a cross sectional study was carried out using a self-administered questionnaire on hospital pharmacists regarding their professional, pharmacy store maintenance, communication skills, prescription auditing services, patient education and awareness programs etc. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among the hospital pharmacists working in two urban cities in south India. A sample of 409 hospital pharmacists was selected from urbanised hospitals in these two cities. Data was analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2007. Results: A total number of 106 hospital pharmacies were visited of which 409 hospital pharmacists have responded to the questionnaire. Most of the hospital pharmacists were qualified with a D.Pharm (75%), B.Pharm (22%) and M.Pharm degree (3%). Around 92.2% of the hospital Pharmacists constantly updated their knowledge whereas only 53% wore white coat during work. Regarding pharmacy store maintenance, almost every pharmacist was following the rules and regulations of state pharmacy council except 72.5% were found not following proper storage restrictions for narcotics. Most of the pharmacists counselled patients on medication use, provided customer care services and did not dispense OTC medications frequently while only 55% of them conducted awareness programmes in their hospitals. Almost all the pharmacists handled the prescription correctly with regard to checking date, record maintenance and verifying signature of prescriber. In terms of interaction with other health care professionals, pharmacists maintained good relationship, reported the medication errors and explained the rational use of drugs. With regards to attitude, 72.5% pharmacists agreed that pharmaceutical services are important for selection and safe and effective use of medicines. Conclusion: In this survey hospital pharmacists lacked to meet their professional requirements. Pharmacists should also be consistent in upgrading their knowledge regarding pharmacy, drugs and diseases.
  I. Jyothi , Tanu Priya , T.M. Vijayakumar , S. Ramesh Kannan , K. Ilango , A. Agrawal and G.P. Dubey
  Use of Clonazepam was very common in Parkinson’s patient with sleep problems such as rapid eye movement behavior Disorder. A pilot study was performed to evaluate the effects of Clonazepam on sleep pattern in Parkinson’s patient using video polysomnography. Overnight polysomnography was performed prospectively in three healthy males (age 51.33±3.51 years) and with three male Parkinson’s patient (age 60.00±8.00 years) with sleep disorders. The study was conducted in two phases using standard techniques in accordance with guidelines published by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM). For sleep stages evaluation, an electroencephalogram (4 channels with 2 central and 2 occipital) chin electromyogram (with 1 channel) and electro-oculogram (with 2 channels) were achieved. Polysomnography characteristics of healthy volunteers and Parkinson’s patient with and with out Clonazepam effect was evaluated. Sleep latency was compared between healthy volunteers and Parkinson’s patients in both the phases. The difference was highly significant [Phase I (p = 0.004, R2 = 0.896), Phase II (p<0.001, R2=0.999)], but there was no considerable effect of Clonazepam in PD Patients [Phase I, (p = 0.606, R2=0.072) Phase II (p = 0.726, R2 = 0.081)]. Clonazepam significantly increases the sleep efficiency [Phase I (p<0.001, R2 = 0.991) Phase II (p = 0.002, R2=0.998)] in Parkinson’s patients but Clonazepam did not have any significant effect on wake after sleep onset, stage I sleep, sleep latency and wakefulness. Hence a larger population based longitudinal study should be performed to validate these findings.
  T.M. Vijayakumar , G. Poovi , Thonda VSS Swaroop , G. Thirumurugan and M.D. Dhanaraju
  This study was carried out to find the drug prescribing pattern and rationality of cardiovascular Fixed Dose Combinations (FDCs) at out patient department of private hospitals in East Godavari District andhrapradesh, India. Prescriptions of 620 patients suffered by cardiovascular diseases were collected over a period of five months and analysed for average number of drugs per prescription. Collected prescriptions were screened for fixed dose combinations and it classified according to patient’s age, gender, duration of drug therapy, cost effectiveness was compared with monotherapy, dosage forms, therapeutic category and dose strength was taken into consideration for evaluate prescribing pattern. Average number of drugs per prescription was 3.65±0.08. Out of 620 cardiovascular prescriptions 234 prescriptions found to have FDCs. In 234 (37.7%) prescriptions, 17 different FDCs were prescribed. Among 234 FDC prescriptions, 124 (52.9%) FDC prescriptions were prescribed for the age group 51-60 years. All the cardiovascular FDCs were prescribed in oral solid dosage forms. Majority of FDCs (46.2%) were prescribed for 1-2 months. In 17 different FDCs, 14 (82.4%) were belongs to antihypertensive category. Out of 17 FDCs analysed, 76.4% were found to be more cost effective than their total cost of individual components. For few FDCs like Telmisartan with Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), Enalapril with HCTZ, Bisoprolol with HCTZ, the total cost of combination was found to be less than that of FDCs. Most of the cardiovascular prescriptions contain Fixed Dose Combinations (FDCs) and most of the FDCs were cost effective but out of total FDCs studied none of them was in accordance with WHO essential medical list and National List of Essential Medicine. So, the rationality behind these combinations was questionable. It seems to be further more clinical trials need for these FDCs to substantiate their safety and efficacy.
  I. Ulaganathan , D. Divya , K. Radha , T.M. Vijayakumar and M.D. Dhanaraju
  Hepatoprotective and anti-oxidant activity of Ethanol Extract of Luffa acutangula (var) amara (EELA) and were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. The extract were administered orally at dose dependent manner of 200, 400, 600 mg kg-1, b.wt, p.o. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic levels of Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT), Serum alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, total cholesterol and total protein were restored towards normalization significantly by the extract. Silymarin was used as standard reference and exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced haptotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that Luffa acutangula (var) amara leaves extract have potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats. Ethanolic extract was found more potent hepatoprotective. Mean while in vivo antioxidant activities were also screened which were positive for EELA extract. This study suggests that possible mechanism of this activity may be due to free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities which may be due to the presence of flavanoids in the extract.
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