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Articles by T. W. van Haeften
Total Records ( 2 ) for T. W. van Haeften
  A. M. J. Wassink , Y. van der Graaf , T. W. van Haeften , W. Spiering , S. S. Soedamah-Muthu and F. L. J. Visseren
  Aims  To assess the effect of various measures of adiposity and of metabolic risk factors, both separately and in combination, on the risk of future Type 2 diabetes in patients with manifest vascular diseases.

Methods  This was a prospective cohort study in 2924 patients (mean age 59 ± 12 years) with manifest atherosclerosis. Metabolic risk factors were defined according to National Cholesterol Education Program criteria for the metabolic syndrome. Incidence of Type 2 diabetes was assessed by questionnaire and subsequent verification.

Results  During a median follow-up of 4.9 years (range 3.0-7.6 years) there were 178 cases (6.1%) of incident Type 2 diabetes. An increase with 1 sd waist circumference showed a strong association with incident Type 2 diabetes in both men (hazard ratio 2.45, 95% CI 1.97-3.04) and women (hazard ratio 1.77, 95% CI 1.38-2.26). Compared with patients with normal (i.e. below the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria for abdominal adiposity) waist circumference and < 3 metabolic risk factors, both patients with normal waist circumference and ≥ 3 metabolic risk factors and patients with high (i.e. above the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria for abdominal adiposity) waist circumference and < 3 metabolic risk factors had an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio 2.44, 95% CI 1.37-4.36 and hazard ratio 3.61, 95% CI 2.23-5.85, respectively). Patients with both high waist circumference and ≥ 3 metabolic risk factors had the highest risk of developing Type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio 10.76, 95% CI 6.95-16.64).

Conclusions  In patients with manifest atherosclerosis, both presence of ≥ 3 metabolic risk factors and presence of a high waist circumference alone are associated with increased risk for developing Type 2 diabetes. The combined presence of ≥ 3 metabolic risk factors and high waist circumference, which is present in 15% of patients, is associated with a 10-fold increased risk of future Type 2 diabetes. To identify patients with manifest atherosclerosis at the highest risk of developing Type 2 diabetes, fat distribution in combination with metabolic risk factors should be considered.

  B. Guigas , J. E. de Leeuw van Weenen , N. van Leeuwen , A. M. Simonis-Bik , T. W. van Haeften , G. Nijpels , J. J. Houwing-Duistermaat , M. Beekman , J. Deelen , L. M. Havekes , B. W. J. H. Penninx , N. Vogelzangs , E. van t Riet , A. Dehghan , A. Hofman , J. C. Witteman , A. G. Uitterlinden , N. Grarup , T. Jorgensen , D. R. Witte , T. Lauritzen , T. Hansen , O. Pedersen , J. Hottenga , J. A. Romijn , M. Diamant , M. H. H. Kramer , R. J. Heine , G. Willemsen , J. M. Dekker , E. M. Eekhoff , H. Pijl , E. J. de Geus , P. E. Slagboom and L. M. t Hart


Modulation of dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) activity affects insulin secretion in both rodents and isolated pancreatic β-cells. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms in the DRD2/ANKK1 locus may affect susceptibility to Type 2 diabetes in humans.


Four potentially functional variants in the coding region of the DRD2/ANKK1 locus (rs1079597, rs6275, rs6277, rs1800497) were genotyped and analysed for Type 2 diabetes susceptibility in up to 25 000 people (8148 with Type 2 diabetes and 17687 control subjects) from two large independent Dutch cohorts and one Danish cohort. In addition, 340 Dutch subjects underwent a 2-h hyperglycaemic clamp to investigate insulin secretion. Since sexual dimorphic associations related to DRD2 polymorphisms have been previously reported, we also performed a gender-stratified analysis.


rs1800497 at the DRD2/ANKK1 locus was associated with a significantly increased risk for Type 2 diabetes in women (odds ratio 1.14 (1.06-1.23); = 4.1*10−4) but not in men (odds ratio 1.00 (95% CI 0.93-1.07); = 0.92) or the combined group. Although rs1800497 was not associated with insulin secretion, we did find another single nucleotide polymorphism in this locus, rs6275, to be associated with increased first-phase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in women (= 5.5*10−4) but again not in men (= 0.34).


The present data identify DRD2/ANKK1 as a potential sex-specific Type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene.

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