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Articles by T. Nakagawa
Total Records ( 3 ) for T. Nakagawa
  K. Haze , K. Enya , L. Abe , S. Tanaka , T. Nakagawa , T. Sato , T. Wakayama and T. Yamamuro
  We present our first results from laboratory experiments on a binary-shaped checkerboard mask coronagraph that was fitted inside a vacuum chamber for the development of skills to the direct observation of extra-solar planets. The aim of this work was to utilize a vacuum chamber for our coronagraph experiments in order to achieve an environment with higher thermal stability and which is free from air turbulence. We also aimed to evaluate and improve the performance of such a system consisting of a vacuum chamber with a coronagraph set inside the chamber. Both the raw contrast and the contrast after point spread function (PSF) subtraction are evaluated. We sited the vacuum chamber in a clean room, and we installed an optical fiber coupled to a visible He–Ne laser, appropriate coronagraph optics, a temperature sensor and heaters in the chamber. This provided a vacuum environment and a temperature-controlled environment with a visible light source, and was shown to improve the stability of the coronagraph. A contrast of 1.7x10-7 was achieved for the raw coronagraphic images by analyzing the areal mean of all of the observed dark regions. A contrast of 7.3x10-9 was achieved for the PSF subtraction by areal variance (1σ) of all of the observed dark regions. Speckles were a major limiting factor throughout the dark regions of both the raw images and the PSF subtracted images. The application of PSF subtraction for the Space Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) and for other platforms is discussed.
  M.M. Rahman , R.B. Abdullah , W.E. Wan Khadijah , T. Nakagawa and R. Akashi
  The high costs of commercial concentrates limit livestock production in South-east Asia. The efficient use of local feed resources may minimize the costs and improve the productivity. Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) contains moderate levels of protein and energy, which is considered sufficient to meet the requirements of most ruminants. However, its protein degradability in the rumen is high resulting in losing its function as protein source for ruminant. This experiment was aimed to investigate the effect of feeding molasses protected PKC and soya waste on intake, nutrient digestibility and growth performance of young female goats. Eight goats were divided into 2 groups and allocated to respective feeding treatments. The treatments were T1 = napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum)+1.0% commercial pellet of live weight (LW) and T2 = napier grass+1.0% PKC of LW+100 g molasses+55 g soya waste. The results indicated that the T1 treatment increased (p<0.05) napier grass Dry matter (DM) intake (370 vs. 295 g day-1) compared to T2 treatment but the total intakes of DM (584 vs. 668 g day-1), organic matter (OM) (532 vs. 585 g day-1), Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF) (308 vs. 344 g day-1) and crude protein (CP) (59.2 vs. 58.9 g day-1) were similar (p>0.05) for both treatments, respectively. The T1 treatment also increased (p<0.05) apparent digestibility of DM (64.1 vs. 56.3%), OM (67.3 vs. 58.9%), NDF (55.9 vs. 45.2%) and CP (68.4 vs. 52.1%) compared to T2 treatment, but they had no effect (p>0.05) on average daily gain (59.0 vs. 72.1 g day-1) and feed conversion ratio (10.4 vs. 9.6), respectively. It is concluded that supplementing a napier grass-based diet with molasses protected PKC and soya waste can be used as source of protein and energy, exploiting the use of local feed resources for goat production.
  M Pellegrino and T. Nakagawa
  Maurizio Pellegrino and Takao Nakagawa

In animals, the sense of smell is often used as a powerful way to attract potential mates, to find food and to explore the environment. Different animals evolved different systems to detect volatile odorants, tuned to the specific needs of each species. Vertebrates and nematodes have been used extensively as models to study the mechanisms of olfaction: the molecular players are olfactory receptors (ORs) expressed in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) where they bind to volatile chemicals, acting as the first relay of olfactory processing. These receptors belong to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily; binding to odorants induces the production and amplification of second messengers, which lead to the depolarization of the neuron. The anatomical features of the insect olfactory circuit are similar to those of mammals, and until recently it was thought that this similarity extended to the ORs, which were originally annotated as GPCRs. Surprisingly, recent evidence shows that insect ORs can act like ligand-gated ion channels, either completely or partially bypassing...

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