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Articles by T. Lu
Total Records ( 2 ) for T. Lu
  D. m Zhang , T He , Z. S Katusic , H. C Lee and T. Lu

Activity of the large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels is profoundly modulated by its β1 subunit (BK-β1). However, BK-β1 expression is downregulated in diabetic vessels. The ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) is a major mechanism of intracellular protein degradation. Whether UPS participates in BK-β1 downregulation in diabetic vessels is unknown.


We hypothesize that UPS facilitates vascular BK-β1 degradation in diabetes.

Methods and Results:

Using patch clamp and molecular biological approaches, we found that BK-β1–mediated channel activation and BK-β1 protein expression were reduced in aortas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and in human coronary arterial smooth muscle cells (CASMCs) cultured in high glucose. This was accompanied by upregulation of F-box only protein (FBXO)-9 and FBXO-32 (atrogin-1), the key components of the Skp1-Cullin-F-box (SCF) type ubiquitin ligase complex. BK-β1 expression was suppressed by the FBXO activator doxorubicin but enhanced by FBXO-9 small interfering RNA or by the proteasome inhibitor MG-132. Cotransfection of atrogin-1 in HEK293 cells significantly reduced Flag-hSlo-β1 expression by 2.16-fold, compared with expression of Flag-hSlo-β1V146A (a mutant without the PDZ-binding motif). After cotransfection with atrogin-1, the ubiquitination of Flag-hSlo-β1 was increased by 1.91-fold, compared with that of hSlo-β1V146A, whereas cotransfection with atrogin-1F (a nonfunctional mutant without the F-box motif) had no effect. Moreover, inhibition of Akt signaling attenuated the phosphorylation of forkhead box O transcription factor (FOXO)-3a and enhanced atrogin-1 expression, which in turn suppressed BK-β1 protein levels in human CASMCs.


Downregulation of vascular BK-β1 expression in diabetes and in high-glucose culture conditions was associated with FOXO-3a/FBXO-dependent increase in BK-β1 degradation.

  D. Yuan , T. Lu , Y.G. Wei , B. Li , L.N. Yan , Y. Zeng , T.F. Wen and J.C. Zhao

Introduction: The accurate assessment of standard liver volume (SLV) is necessary for the safety of both the donor and the recipient in living donor liver transplantation. However, the accuracy of SLV formulas relates to cohorts or races. This study examined the accuracy of a simple linear formula versus previous formulas of SLV for Chinese adults.

Methods: Among 112 patients with normal liver, we created a new formula for SLV with stepwise regression analysis using the following variables: age, gender, body weight, body height, body mass index, and body surface area. The agreement between the actual liver volume (LV) and calculated LV using various formulas was prospectively evaluated among 63 living donors by paired-sample student`s t-test and Lin`s concordance correlation coefficient.

Results: A new formula was developed SLV (mL) = 949.7 × BSA (m2) − 48.3 × age − 247.4 where age was counted as 1 for those <40, 2 if 41–60, and 3 if >60 years old. The calculated LV using our formula showed no significant difference from the actual LV using the paired-samples student`s t-test (P = .653). Lin`s concordance correlation coefficient showed substantial agreement between estimated LV using our formula and actual LV. Furthermore, this study also observed an almost perfect agreement between our formula and the Yoshizumi et al formula.

Conclusion: Our formula, which accurately estimated LV among Chinese adults, may be applicable to adults of other ethnicitis.
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