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Articles by T. Laitinen
Total Records ( 2 ) for T. Laitinen
  T. Koskinen , M. Kahonen , A. Jula , N. Mattsson , T. Laitinen , L. Keltikangas-Jarvinen , J. Viikari , I. Valimaki , T. Ronnemaa and O. T. Raitakari
  Aims  Heart rate variability (HRV) can be used to estimate autonomic nervous control of the cardiovascular system. In middle-aged subjects, the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with lower HRV. We hypothesized that alterations in autonomic balance are already present in young adults with the MetS, and analysed the association of short-term HRV with the MetS (using the National Cholesterol Education Program definition), in 1889 subjects aged 24-39 years.

Methods  Short-term (3 min) HRV analysis included high-frequency (HF), low-frequency (LF) and total (TP) spectral components of HRV and LF/HF ratio.

Results  The presence of the MetS was associated with lower HF, LF and TP in men and women, and with higher LF/HF ratio in women. In men, waist circumference was the strongest individual MetS component that associated with HRV. After adjustments for age and heart rate, MetS was associated with lower HF and higher LF/HF ratio in women, but only with a lower TP in men (all P < 0.05).

Conclusions  MetS is associated with lower HRV in young adults. The individual components of MetS are differentially associated with HRV in men and in women. Our results are consistent with lower vagal activity and a possible increase in sympathetic predominance in women with the MetS. This sex difference in vagal activity and sympathovagal balance may partly explain the greater increase in cardiovascular risk associated with MetS in women than in men.

  T. Laitinen , J. Lindstrom , J. Eriksson , P. Ilanne-Parikka , S. Aunola , S. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi , J. Tuomilehto and M. Uusitupa
  Aims  The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in persons with previously diagnosed impaired glucose tolerance and to characterize associations between components of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study cohort.

Methods  Two hundred and sixty-eight individuals with impaired glucose tolerance at baseline in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study, but not diagnosed with diabetes during follow-up, were studied for cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. At the second annual follow-up visit after the end of lifestyle intervention, we performed deep-breathing and active orthostatic tests to detect possible parasympathetic and sympathetic dysfunction. To describe metabolic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, an oral glucose tolerance test and assessments for HbA1c, serum lipids and blood pressure were carried out.

Results  Prevalence of parasympathetic dysfunction was 25% and prevalence of sympathetic dysfunction was 6%, with no difference between the former intervention and control group participants or between men and women. Subjects with parasympathetic dysfunction were older, more obese (weight, waist circumference, body mass index) and had higher triglyceride concentration compared with those with normal parasympathetic function (P < 0.01 for all). Parasympathetic dysfunction was not significantly associated with other characteristics of metabolic syndrome; for example, high cholesterol, glucose and insulin levels or HbA1c. Correlations between the Expiration/Inspiration (E/I) ratio (the longest heart beat duration in expiration divided by the shortest heart beat duration in inspiration) and measures reflecting obesity were statistically significant in the pooled population and in men but not in women.

Conclusions  Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is common in persons with impaired glucose tolerance. Obesity, especially among men, seems to play an important role in the early pathogenesis of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy.

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