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Articles by T. Kesmala
Total Records ( 17 ) for T. Kesmala
  R. Puttha , S. Jogloy , S. Wongkaew , J. Sanitchon , T. Kesmala and A. Patanothai
  The objectives of this study were to estimate heritability for PBNV resistance parameters and to determine phenotypic and genotypic correlations among PBNV resistance parameters and agronomic traits. One hundred and ninety two progenies in the F5 and F6 generations of peanut as well as their parents were evaluated under natural infection of PBNV in a randomized complete block design with six replications for two years. Additional experiment of the duplicated materials was also conducted for agronomic evaluation for one year using similar experimental procedures under conditions that favored optimum agronomic performance. Heritability estimates were low to relatively high for both disease incidence and disease severity, depending on crosses, ranging form 0.10 to 0.90 and 0.00 to 0.79, respectively. Phenotypic and genotypic correlation coefficients for PBND incidence and PBND severity were high, ranging from 0.94** to 0.98** and 0.99** and 1.00**, respectively. Phenotypic and genotypic correlation coefficients between PBNV resistance parameters and agronomic characters were generally low for most pairs of characters, except between PBNV resistance parameters and 100-seed weight for which it was moderate (0.42** to 0.60**) PBNV susceptibility is somewhat associated with larger seed and might hinder the progress of breeding for large-seeded peanut with resistance to PBNV.
  S. Ekvised , S. Jogloy , C. Akkasaeng , M. Keerati- kasikorn , T. Kesmala , I. Buddhasimma and A. Patanothai
  Selection of an efficient, simple and accurate screening method is important in a varietal evaluation program. The objective of this study was to evaluate reactions of peanut lines to natural thrips infestation using thrips number parameters and thrips damage parameters to identify which parameters were consistent and most suitable in separating the difference of peanut lines. Another objective was to evaluate appropriate assessment times. A randomized complete block design with six replications was used at three environments. Data were recorded for adult thrips number. Juvenile thrips number, total thrips number, Percentage of damaged plants, percentage of damaged leaves and thrips damage rating at 30, 0, 0, 0 and 70 Days After Planting (DAP). Sticky traps were also used to monitor thrips abundance in environment 3 and found that Scirtothrips dorsalis was the most abundant species accounting for 48.7% of total adult thrips number. Differences among cultivars for adult thrips number and total thrips number were observed at 40, 0, 0 and 70 DAP, but not at 30 DAP. Differences among cultivars for juvenile thrips number were observed at 60 and 70 DAP. The differences among cultivars for thrips number were less consistent across evaluation dates. The most appropriate assessment times for thrips number would be between 50 to 70 DAP. It would be difficult to identify thrips resistant lines by using thrips number as selection criterion. Differences among cultivars for percentage of damaged plants were observed at 30, 0, 0 and 60 DAP, but not at 70 DAP. Appropriate assessment times would be at 30 to 50 DAP. Differences among cultivars for percentage of damaged leaves and thrips damage rating were quite similar and observed at 30 to 70 DAP. Appropriate assessment times would be at later evaluation dates (50 to 70 DAP). Plant damage parameters are more useful than thrips number in identifying differences among peanut cultivars. These parameters are more consistent across evaluation dates and years and should be promising for use as selection criteria for thrips resistance in peanut. Among tested cultivars, IC 10 showed the lowest thrips number and plant damage.
  K. Niyomsil , S. Jogloy , M. Keerati-kasikorn , C. Akkasaeng , T. Kesmala and A. Patanothai
  As disease vectors and damaging pests, several thrips species are important for peanut production. Development of resistant cultivars is economical and sustainable mean to combat the problem. To achieve this goal, a better understanding of genetic control of thrips resistance is of paramount importance to the success of breeding programs. The objective of this study was to estimate relative importance of genetic parameters for total thrips number, number of adult thrips, number of larval thrips and leaf damage by thrips feeding, which might be indicative of thrips resistance in the three crosses of peanut, using generation means analysis. The experiment was conducted in a farmer’s field after rice harvest in Kalasin province in the Northeast of Thailand during dry season in 2002. Seven generations of three crosses were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with six replications under natural infestation of thrips population. Data of 50 days after planting (DAP) were reported for thrips number and data of 60, 70 and 80 DAP were reported for leaf damage. Dominance gene effect was significant in the cross ICGV 86388 x IC 10 for number of adult thrips and number of total thrips and in the cross ICGV 86388 x Khon Kaen 60-1 all genetic parameters estimated were not significant expect for dominance by dominance of adult thrip number. Additive gene effect was found in the cross IC 10 x Khon Kaen 60-1 for total thrips number. Additive x dominance epistatic gene effect was also found in the cross IC 10 x Khon Kaen 60-1 for total thrips number and larval thrips number, while dominance x dominance was expressed for adult thrips number. Additive genetic parameter for thrips damage was not significant for three sampling dates. Dominance and epistatic gene effects were significant in the cross IC 10 x Khon Kaen 60-1. Improvement of thrips resistance may be possible in the cross IC 10 x Khon Kaen 60-1 because of significant additive gene effect.
  P. Songsri , S. Jogloy , T. Kesmala , N. Vorasoot , C. Akkasaeng , A. Patanothai and C.C. Holbrook
  The aims of this study were to evaluate genetic variations in yield and reproductive developmental characters among peanut genotypes in response to drought and relate these responses to pod yield under different soil moisture. Eleven peanut genotypes were tested under three soil moisture levels [field capacity (FC), 2/3 available soil water (AW) and 1/3AW] in field experiments. Data were recorded for number of flowers, pegs (RSs), immature pods and mature pods per plant, seed per pod, 100-seed weight and pod yield at harvest. A drought tolerance index (DTI) for pod yield was calculated as the ratio of pod yield under stress treatment to that under well-watered conditions. The differences among water regimes were significant for pod yield, number of RSs, immature pods and mature pods per plant, seed per pod and 100 seed weight and differences among genotypes were significant for all traits. Drought reduced pod yield, number of RSs, pods and mature pods per plant. Early peak of flowering is important for the formation of mature pods under drought conditions. Two different strategies were used in maintaining high pod yield under drought. High yield potential was important for ICGV 98348 and ICGV 98353, whereas low pod yield reduction was important for ICGV 98305, ICGV 98303 and ICGV 98300. Tifton 8 showed the lowest pod yield and poor seed filling. High RSs and well-filled mature pods were the most important traits contributing to high pod yield in drought resistant genotypes.
  N. Jongrungklang , B. Toomsan , N. Vorasoot , S. Jogloy , T. Kesmala and A. Patanothai
  The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of drought stress on Total Dry Matter (TDM), pod yield, Water Use Efficiency (WUE), harvest index (HI), SPAD Chlorophyll Meter Readings (SCMR), Specific Leaf Area (SLA) and canopy temperature, to identify drought resistant peanut genotypes from a collection of peanut germplasm and to establish the relationships among drought resistance traits. Field experiments was conducted in a strip plot design with four water regimes (field capacity (FC), 25, 40 and 60 reduction percentage of amount of water regimes in FC) as main and sixty peanut genotypes as sub-treatments. Observations on TDM, pod yield and SLA were measured at harvest. SCMR and canopy temperature were recorded at 30, 60 and 90 day after emergence. WUE were computed using the data on amount of water input and TDM. HI was computed using the data on pod yield and TDM. The result showed that the effects of drought reduced TDM, pod dry weight, HI, WUE and SLA, but increased SCMR and canopy temperature. The correlation of WUE was positively related to SCMR under water limit conditions. The surrogate traits with well associated on WUE could be useful as selection criteria for drought tolerance. In this germplasm, the identical genotypes with high WUE in all of drought levels were Tifton-8, 14 PI 430238 and 205 PI 442925. KK 60-3, 101 PI 268659 only found high WUE in severe drought condition. The genotypes identified might be useful in future breeding programs for drought tolerance.
  A. Arunyanark , S. Jogloy , N. Vorasoot , C. Akkasaeng , T. Kesmala and A. Patanothai
  The objectives of this study were to examine the stability of SPAD (soil plant analysis development) chlorophyll meter reading (SCMR) and chlorophyll density, surrogate trait of drought tolerance in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and their relationships in different leaf positions at different times under different drought stress conditions. Chlorophyll density and SCMR varied depending on water regimes, times of sampling and genotypes, but water regime x genotype interactions were not significant for chlorophyll density and SCMR. The correlation coefficients between chlorophyll density and SCMR were positive and significant across irrigation treatments (r = 0.76**, 0.94** and 0.96**) and each water regime, plant age and leaf position (r = 0.31 to 0.99**). Interestingly, chlorophyll density and SCMR at different water regimes were also correlated significantly, indicating the stability of their relationship in different water regime conditions. The result suggest that evaluation of chlorophyll density by SCMR can be carried out at any water regime conditions in the second or third-fully expanded leaves after 40 days of crop growth. This confers a large flexibility to application of SCMR in breeding program for drought tolerance.
  M. Painawadee , S. Jogloy , T. Kesmala , C. Akkasaeng and A. Patanothai
  The aim of this study was to investigate whether some root characters and physiological characters are related to drought resistance in some elite germplasm lines earlier identified as drought resistant based on pod yield. Four peanut genotypes were tested in a pot experiment under two soil moisture levels [Field Capacity (FC) and 1/3 available water (1/3 AW)]. A 2x4 factorial experiment was laid out in RCBD with six replications. Data were recorded for Relative Water Content (RWC), Specific Leaf Area (SLA), SPAD Chlorophyll Meter Reading (SCMR), root and biomass at 70 days after planting. Root characters, biomass production, pod yield and Harvest Index (HI) were recorded at harvest and Drought Tolerance Index (DTI) for these traits were also calculated. Differences between water treatments were also significant for RWC, SLA, Root Dry Weight (RDW) and biomass but not significant for SCMR, harvest index and pod yield. Drought stress reduced RWC, SLA, RDW and biomass but had no significant effect on SCMR, harvest index and pod yield. Significant differences among peanut genotypes were found for SLA at both water treatments. ICGV 98353 had the lowest SLA at both water treatments. Peanut genotypes were significantly different for RDW and RWC at 1/3 AW only. KK 4 had the highest RDW. ICGV 98324 performed best for RWC and it also had the highest DTI for RWC. ICGV 98324 also had the highest SCMR, which was significantly different among peanut genotypes at FC.
  D. Puangbut , S. Jogloy , N. Vorasoot , C. Akkasaeng , T. Kesmala and A. Patanothai
  The objectives of the present study were to investigate the variability in yield responses of peanut genotypes subjected to Early Season Drought (ESD) and to evaluate characters associated with yield. The field experiment was conducted in the rainy and dry seasons. Eleven genotypes of peanut and two water regimes (field capacity and 1/3 available soil water) were laid out in split plot design with four replications. Where, water regimes were assigned in main plots and 11 peanut genotypes were laid out in subplots. Imposition of ESD following re-watering resulted in an increase of pod yield compared to the irrigated treatment. Significant genotypic differences in yield response in relation to ESD were observed in this study and this could be useful in selecting desired genotypes in peanut breeding program. The highest pod yields were found in ICGV 98303 and Tainan 9 in the rainy season, whereas, in the dry season, ICGV 98303 was still highest for pod yield followed by ICGV 98300. After re-watering, SPAD chlorophyll meter reading, leaf area index and biomass productions were increased. Thus, increase in yield was associated with high biomass production after recovery combined with great green leaf area and concentration of leaf chlorophyll.
  M. Painawadee , S. Jogloy , T. Kesmala , C. Akkasaeng and A. Patanothai
  Several physio-morphological traits are related to pod yield of peanut. Improvement of these traits should lead to yield increase under drought conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate (1) heritability of drought resistance traits, yield and yield components and (2) relationships among these traits. A cross of two parents (ICGV 98324 and KK 4) differing in physio-morphological traits was used in this study. Pot experiments of F2 and F3 populations were set up in the open field with rainout shelters. One hundred and twenty eight entries were subjected to water stress during 28 to 70 days after sowing and evaluation of the studied characters was conducted at appropriate time. Data were recorded for Root Dry Weight (RDW), Root Length (RL), Root Surface (RS), Root Volume (RV), Specific Leaf Area (SLA), SPAD Chlorophyll Meter Reading (SCMR), biomass, pod yield, pod number per plant, seed number per pod, 100-seed weight and Harvest Index (HI). Heritability estimates in broad sense for root characters and drought resistance traits were low to intermediate, ranging from 0.27 to 0.59. Similarly, low to intermediate heritability estimates in broad sense were found for pod yield and yield components, ranging from 0.20 to 0.57. Heritability estimates in narrow sense were much lower than in broad sense. The correlation coefficients among root characters were inter-related positively, whereas negative correlation coefficients were observed among physiological characters. Root characters were closely related to biomass production but they were not related to yield and yield components except for pod number per plant.
  P. Songsri , N. Vorasoot , S. Jogloy , T. Kesmala , C. Akkasaeng , A. Patanothai and C.C. Holbrook
  The aim of this study was to evaluate the responses to difference in available soil water levels for yield and reproductive characters of peanut genotypes and relate these responses to pod yield under drought conditions. Eleven peanut genotypes were tested under three soil moisture levels (Field Capacity (FC), 2/3 available soil water (AW) and 1/3AW). Data were recorded for total number of flowers, pegs (reproductive sinks; RSs), immature pods and mature pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, 100-seed weight and pod yield at harvest. Drought at mild and severe levels significantly reduced Harvest Index (HI), yield components and reproductive developmental characters and the reductions were most substantial for pod yield with increasing moisture stress. High pod yield under drought conditions in ICGV 98300 was caused by high potential yield and low yield reduction, whereas high pod yield in ICGV 98324 was due to low pod yield reduction. High HI and numbers of mature pods are advantageous and necessary for high yield under drought conditions. High conversion of RSs to total pods and conversion of flowers to mature pods were the most important factors contributing to high pod yield under mild drought (2/3 AW) and severe drought (1/3 AW), respectively. Tifton 8 showed the lowest pod yield and poor seed filling under well-watered and droughts conditions.
  W. Pimsaen , S. Jogloy , B. Suriharn , T. Kesmala , V. Pensuk and A. Patanothai
  Inulin containing tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) can be used as raw material for healthy products, sweeteners, bio-ethanol and animal feed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of cultivar, environment and cultivarxenvironment interaction on fresh tuber yield tuber number and tuber size of Jerusalem artichoke. Fifteen cultivars were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with four replications at nine environments in the Northeast of Thailand. Differences among cultivars were observed for fresh tuber yield, tuber number and weight of individual tubers (tuber size). Environment effect contributed to a larger portion of variations in fresh tuber yield, tuber number and tuber size. Although, genotypex environment interactions were also significant, their values were much smaller than genotype main effects for all characters. Stability parameters indicated that exploitation of superior cultivars with adaptation to a wide range of environments and the cultivars with specific adaptation to specific environments would be possible. Low correlation but significant was found for fresh tuber yield and tuber number, indicating that tuber yield in some cultivars was dependent on high tuber number. Strong correlation between fresh tuber yield and tuber size indicated that bigger tuber is necessary to obtain higher tuber yield. Negative but significant correlation between tuber number and tuber size indicated that increased tuber size is on the expense of tuber number. JA 89 was the most promising cultivar for wide adaptation and high tuber yield, whereas HEL 65 was the most promising cultivar for its bigger tubers and acceptable yield.
  N. Singkham , S. Jogloy , T. Kesmala , P. Swatsitang , P. Jaisil , N. Puppala and A. Patanothai
  Oleic acid in peanut oil increases shelf-life and kernel quality. Heritability for oleic acid is important for predicting selection progress. The aims of this study were to estimate the heritability of oleic acid content by parent-offspring regression and to determine the correlation among oil characters. The data were collected in the F2 and F3 generations derived from the crosses between two high-oleic peanuts (SunOleic 97R and Georgia-02C) and a low oleic peanut (KKU 1). The F2 populations were planted in the rainy season (2008) and the F3 populations derived from the F2 populations were planted in the dry season (2008/09) at Khon Kean University. Heritability estimates in narrow sense were intermediate to high for oleic and linoleic acids (0.63-0.72 and 0.57-0.72, respectively). Heritability estimates for % oil were low in all populations. Significant and negative correlation was observed between oleic and linoleic acids (r = -0.98). The high heritability for oleic acid in this study indicated that selection for high oleic acid in peanut was effective in the F2 generation.
  S. Pimratch , S. Jogloy , N. Vorasoot , B. Toomsan , T. Kesmala , A. Patanothai and C.C. Holbrook
  Twelve peanut genotypes were tested under three water regimes in two greenhouses to investigate the effects of drought on biomass production and N2 fixation. Drought reduced biomass production from 36.5 to 56.0% and reduced nitrogen fixation from 26.8 to 68.8%. Most genotypes with high biomass production under Field Capacity (FC) had high reduction in biomass production under drought conditions, but fewer genotypes with high N2 fixed under FC showed high reduction in N2 fixed. Biomass production under FC in general gave more contribution to biomass production under drought conditions than did the reduction. N2 fixed under FC and the reduction in N2 fixed contributed similarly to N2 fixed under drought conditions. Positive and significant correlations between N2 fixed and biomass production were found at FC and 2/3 available soil water (AW), but the correlation was not significant at 1/3 AW. Tifton-8 was the best genotype for high N2 fixed under FC and KK 60-3 was the best genotype for low reduction. Correlations between N2 fixed and nodule dry weight and shoot dry weight were high and consistent across water regimes. This information is important for breeders to develop peanut cultivars with reasonably high nitrogen fixation under drought conditions.
  C. Jogloy , P. Jaisil , C. Akkasaeng , T. Kesmala and S. Jogloy
  The rapid accumulation and conversion of the dry matter into harvestable yield under limited crop duration are preferable for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) grown in various cropping systems where intensified cropping systems are generally practiced. In these cropping systems, peanut genotypes with acceptable yield and shorter crop duration are required. The objectives of this study were to estimate the broad sense heritability for Crop Growth Rate (CGR), Pod Growth Rate (PGR), Partitioning Efficiency (PC) and reproductive duration in an advanced generation of segregating population of large-seeded type peanut and to investigate the relationship among these characters. Two-hundred breeding lines in the F6 generation of 10 peanut crosses (twenties for each cross) were assigned in a randomized complete block design with two replications. CGR, PGR, PC and RD were recorded at harvest. Heritability estimates for CGR (0.00-0.60) were lower than those for PGR (0.04-0.68), PC (0.00-0.82) and RD (0.17-0.90). Correlation coefficients among CGR, PGR and PC were positive and significant, whereas they were negatively and significantly correlated with RD. The results suggested that improvement of CGR, PGR, PC would be possible among studied materials and would result in lower reproductive duration and early maturity.
  B. Suriharn , J. Sanitchon , P. Songsri and T. Kesmala
  Appropriate canopy management and proper application of fertilizer under different growing conditions and agronomic practices can obtain reliable yield of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of pruning level in first year and fertilizer rate of combined NPK in the first and second years on growth and yield of three-year old physic. A split plot design with four replications was used. Three pruning levels of 50, 75 and 90 cm from the ground were assigned in main plots and combinations of NPK fertilizers at the rates of 0, 312.5 and 625 kg ha-1 were arranged randomly in subplots. All pruning levels from the ground did not have significant effects on branch number and branch length (cm), whereas application of fertilizer did increase branch number and branch length especially at the rate of 312.5 kg ha-1. Harvest in the second year gave higher yield (1,559 kg ha-1) than did in the first year (1,180 kg ha-1) for all treatments, suggesting that it is not necessary to prune physic nut every year in commercial plantations. It is recommended to prune the three-year old physic nut at 70 cm from the ground. Pruning at 90 cm from the ground is possible but not at 50 cm. it is also recommended to apply fertilizer to the three-year old physic nut under rainfed conditions at the rate not exceeding 312.5 kg ha-1 and this should be based on soil analysis. Application of higher rates depressed yield.
  P. Songsri , B. Suriharn , J. Sanitchon , S. Srisawangwong and T. Kesmala
  Narrow genetic base is a main problem hindering the progress of physic nut breeding. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of different levels of gamma radiation on germination percentage, survival percentage and growth of five physic nut genotypes. The seeds were treated with six levels of gamma radiation (0, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 Gy) and the 5x6 treatment combinations were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Data were recorded for germination percentage, survival percentage at 15 Days After Germination (DAG) (GR50(15)) and survival percentage at 30 DAG (LD50(30)). As the seedlings did not survive at 600, 800 and 1000 Gy, these treatments were deleted from the successive evaluations of plant height, stem diameter and leaf number. Higher doses of gamma radiation resulted in the significant reductions in germination percentage, survival percentage and plant height. The germination percentages were from 4.0% for 1000 Gy to 82.5% for 0 Gy. The seeds treated with gamma radiation higher than 600 Gy resulted in complete mortality. Difference among genotypes was not significant for these characters. The dosages of gamma radiation to obtain LD50 based on survival percentage 30 DAG was 425 Gy and was not dependent on genotypes. The information is useful for gamma radiation induction of mutation breeding for physic nut.
  A. Poledate , S. Laohasiriwong , P. Jaisil , N. Vorasoot , S. Jogloy , T. Kesmala and A. Patanothai
  The objective of this study was to determine relative importance of gene effects for PBNV incidence and PBNV severity evaluated at 30, 40, 50 and 60 days after planting. Eight generations of three crosses involved three parental lines were evaluated for disease incidence (percentage of infected plants) and disease severity under natural occurrence of PBNV infection in a randomized complete block design with six replications. Evaluations were carried out at 30, 40, 50 and 60 Days After Planting (DAP). The analysis followed Hayman’s model and Gamble’s notations were used to describe parameters of gene effects. Joint scaling test was used to determine adequacy of the model. Additive gene effect was the most important contribution to genetic variation in generation means for both disease incidence and disease severity in the cross ICGV 86388 x IC 10. Selection for lower disease incidence and disease severity in this cross is promising. Additive gene effect and additive x additive epistatic gene effect were also important but in lower magnitude in the cross ICGV 86388 x KK 60-1 for disease incidence at 60 DAP. The presence of significant dominance gene effect in this cross for disease incidence might hinder the progress from selection. The consistent and significant additive gene effect for disease severity might provide a better selection strategy. Additive gene effect was significant for disease incidence only in the cross IC 10 x KK 60-1 at 60 DAP. Additive x dominance epistatic gene effect was also significant at 40 DAP, but no genetic parameter was significant for disease severity. This cross is considered less promising.
 
 
 
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