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Articles by T. Thema
Total Records ( 4 ) for T. Thema
  A.A. Aganga , S. Machacha , B. Sebolai , T. Thema and B.B. Marotsi
  Production of forage using treated sewage water is a viable practice internationally. However, there is not much information on the heavy metal content of such forages. This study was conducted to determine the effect of sewage water on soils and forages irrigated with treated sewage water at Botswana College of Agriculture `s farm. The study was conducted for a period of 120 days using established forage pastures of rye grass (Lolium multiflorum) and lucerne (Medicago sativa). Heavy metals determined were Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb and Cd. Generally the treated sewage water contained relatively low levels of heavy metals. Zn, Ni and Mn concentration were below the detectable levels. In the sewage water while soils and plants had low levels of heavy metals. Comparatively the soil and plants heavy metal levels were much higher than those in the water and the difference was significant (p<0.05). There was some low correlation between trace element contents in the water and soil. In addition there was some significant difference (p<0.05) in heavy metal concentration in sewage water between the months during which the analyses were done. However, the sewage water, soils and forage mineral concentrations were within the internationally allowable heavy metal concentration with respect to irrigation, soil loadings and animal feeds.
  A.A. Aganga , U.J. Omphile , T. Thema and L.Z. Wilson
  The study was conducted to determine the effect of additives on the chemical composition of ryegrass (L. multiflorum) cut at five different stages of growth. They were harvested fortnightly as from September to November 2003.The grass samples were ensiled and then analysed for the proximate composition, in vitro digestibility nutrient and mineral elements. The young and immature plants were highly digestible but as maturity increased, yield also increased, but quality decreased. The digestibility decreased as lignification of the plant material increased with plant maturity.
  A.A. Aganga , U.J. Omphile , T. Thema and J.C. Baitshotlhi
  The study was conducted to determine the influence of additives on the chemical composition of napier grass (P. purpureum) cut at five different heights of growth (50, 75 cm, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 m). They were harvested monthly from September 2003 to January 2004. The grass samples were ensiled and then analysed for the proximate composition, in vitro digestibility, nutrients and mineral elements. The young and immature napier grass cut at 50 cm height were highly digestible but as maturity increased, yield also increased, but quality decreased. The digestibility decreased as lignifications of the plant material increased with grass height and maturity. There was improved chemical composition and digestibility of napier grass silage cut at different heights treated with additives compared to the plain napier grass silage without additives.
  A. A. Aganga , A. O. Aganga , T. Thema and K. O. Obocheleng
  The objective was to determine the meat yield, proximate and mineral composition in donkey carcasses, aged between 5-8 years. Proximate analysis of the minced carcass was done and reported as moisture, dry matter, crude protein, total ash and organic matter. Moisture content was 68.35-74.72% and the dry matter content was 23.68-30.68%. Total ash content was also higher in donkeys (5.10-8.19%) as compared to 1.5-1.09% in beef, however, the organic matter content was slightly lower in donkeys (91.81- 94.90%), compared to 98.5 and 98.91% reported in beef. The crude protein content 55.05-62.27 on dry matter basis. Mineral analysis revealed that donkey meat is rich in Fe, P, K and Zn. (For Ca, P, Mg, Cu and Mn), there was no significant difference between the cuts (P< 0.05). However, a significant difference was observed in K, N, Zn and Fe (P< 0.05). The investigation suggested tenderness, juiciness, flavour and odour as being the main criteria, by which consumers judge the quality of donkey meat. The male and female respondents differed significantly in their responses on donkey meat`s tenderness and firmness. (P< 0.05).
 
 
 
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