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Articles by T. S Brugha
Total Records ( 2 ) for T. S Brugha
  P. E Bebbington , C Cooper , S Minot , T. S Brugha , R Jenkins , H Meltzer and M. Dennis
 

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to utilize data from the 2000 British National Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity, a randomized cross-sectional survey of the British population that included questions relating to the phenomena of suicidality and sexual abuse, to test the hypothesis that suicide attempts in women are significantly associated with a history of sexual abuse. METHOD: Participants were male and female volunteers, ages 16 to 74 years old (N=8,580), interviewed in the 2000 British National Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity. RESULTS: Sexual abuse was strongly associated with a history of suicide attempts as well as of suicidal intent and was more common in women. The population attributable risk fraction was considerably greater in female respondents (28%) than in male respondents (7%), which is consistent with more prevalent exposure to sexual abuse among women. The effect of sexual abuse on suicidal attempts and suicidal intent was reduced by controlling for affective symptoms, suggesting that the effect of the former was likely to be mediated by affective changes. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual abuse is a significant antecedent of suicidal behavior, particularly among women. In identifying suicidal behavior, it is important to consider the possibility of sexual abuse, since it implies a need for focused treatment.

  S Seedat , K. M Scott , M. C Angermeyer , P Berglund , E. J Bromet , T. S Brugha , K Demyttenaere , G de Girolamo , J. M Haro , R Jin , E. G Karam , V Kovess Masfety , D Levinson , M. E Medina Mora , Y Ono , J Ormel , B. E Pennell , J Posada Villa , N. A Sampson , D Williams and R. C. Kessler
 

Context  Gender differences in mental disorders, including more anxiety and mood disorders among women and more externalizing disorders among men, are found consistently in epidemiological surveys. The gender roles hypothesis suggests that these differences narrow as the roles of women and men become more equal.

Objectives  To study time-space (cohort-country) variation in gender differences in lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders across cohorts in 15 countries in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative and to determine if this variation is significantly related to time-space variation in female gender role traditionality as measured by aggregate patterns of female education, employment, marital timing, and use of birth control.

Design  Face-to-face household surveys.

Setting  Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and the Pacific.

Participants  Community-dwelling adults (N = 72 933).

Main Outcome Measures  The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed lifetime prevalence and age at onset of 18 DSM-IV anxiety, mood, externalizing, and substance disorders. Survival analyses estimated time-space variation in female to male odds ratios of these disorders across cohorts defined by the following age ranges: 18 to 34, 35 to 49, 50 to 64, and 65 years and older. Structural equation analysis examined predictive effects of variation in gender role traditionality on these odds ratios.

Results  In all cohorts and countries, women had more anxiety and mood disorders than men, and men had more externalizing and substance disorders than women. Although gender differences were generally consistent across cohorts, significant narrowing was found in recent cohorts for major depressive disorder and substance disorders. This narrowing was significantly related to temporal (major depressive disorder) and spatial (substance disorders) variation in gender role traditionality.

Conclusions  While gender differences in most lifetime mental disorders were fairly stable over the time-space units studied, substantial intercohort narrowing of differences in major depression was found to be related to changes in the traditionality of female gender roles. Additional research is needed to understand why this temporal narrowing was confined to major depression.

 
 
 
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