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Articles by T. P. J Solomon
Total Records ( 6 ) for T. P. J Solomon
  K. R Kelly , L. M Brooks , T. P. J Solomon , S. R Kashyap , V. B O`Leary and J. P. Kirwan

Aging and obesity are characterized by decreased β-cell sensitivity and defects in the potentiation of nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion by GIP. Exercise and diet are known to improve glucose metabolism and the pancreatic insulin response to glucose, and this effect may be mediated through the incretin effect of GIP. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a 12-wk exercise training intervention (5 days/wk, 60 min/day, 75% Vo2 max) combined with a eucaloric (EX, n = 10) or hypocaloric (EX-HYPO, pre: 1,945 ± 190, post: 1,269 ± 70, kcal/day; n = 9) diet on the GIP response to glucose in older (66.8 ± 1.5 yr), obese (34.4 ± 1.7 kg/m2) adults with impaired glucose tolerance. In addition to GIP, plasma PYY3–36, insulin, and glucose responses were measured during a 3-h, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Both interventions led to a significant improvement in Vo2 max (P < 0.05). Weight loss (kg) was significant in both groups but was greater after EX-HYPO (–8.3 ± 1.1 vs. –2.8 ± 0.5, P = 0.002). The glucose-stimulated insulin response was reduced after EX-HYPO (P = 0.02), as was the glucose-stimulated GIP response (P < 0.05). Furthermore, after the intervention, changes in insulin (I0–30/G0–30) and GIP (0–30) secretion were correlated (r = 0.69, P = 0.05). The PYY3–36 (0–30) response to glucose was increased after both interventions (P < 0.05). We conclude that 1) a combination of caloric restriction and exercise reduces the GIP response to ingested glucose, 2) GIP may mediate the attenuated glucose-stimulated insulin response after exercise/diet interventions, and 3) the increased PYY3–36 response represents an improved capacity to regulate satiety and potentially body weight in older, obese, insulin-resistant adults.

  T. P. J Solomon , J. M Haus , C. M Marchetti , W. C Stanley and J. P. Kirwan

Elevated free fatty acids (FFA) are implicated with insulin resistance at the cellular level. However, the contribution of whole body lipid kinetics to FFA-induced insulin resistance is not well understood, and the effect of exercise and diet on this metabolic defect is not known. We investigated the effect of 12 wk of exercise training with and without caloric restriction on FFA turnover and oxidation (FFAox) during acute FFA-induced insulin resistance. Sixteen obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were randomized to either a hypocaloric (n = 8; –598 ± 125 kcal/day, 66 ± 1 yr, 32.8 ± 1.8 kg/m2) or a eucaloric (n = 8; 67 ± 2 yr, 35.3 ± 2.1 kg/m2) diet and aerobic exercise (1 h/day at 65% of maximal oxygen uptake) regimen. Lipid kinetics ([1-14C]palmitate) were assessed throughout a 7-h, 40 mU·m–2·min–1 hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, during which insulin resistance was induced in the last 5 h by a sustained elevation in plasma FFA (intralipid/heparin infusion). Despite greater weight loss in the hypocaloric group (–7.7 ± 0.5 vs. –3.3 ± 0.7%, P < 0.001), FFA-induced peripheral insulin resistance was improved equally in both groups. However, circulating FFA concentrations (2,123 ± 261 vs. 1,764 ± 194 µmol/l, P < 0.05) and FFA turnover (3.20 ± 0.58 vs. 2.19 ± 0.58 µmol·kg FFM–1·min–1, P < 0.01) during hyperlipemia were suppressed only in the hypocaloric group. In contrast, whole body FFAox was improved in both groups at rest and during hyperlipemia. These changes were driven by increases in intracellular lipid-derived FFAox (12.3 ± 7.7 and 14.7 ± 7.8%, P < 0.05). We conclude that the exercise-induced improvement in FFA-induced insulin resistance is independent of the magnitude of weight loss and FFA turnover, yet it is linked to increased intracellular FFA utilization.

  Y Li , T. P. J Solomon , J. M Haus , G. M Saidel , M. E Cabrera and J. P. Kirwan

Identifying the mechanisms by which insulin regulates glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle is critical to understanding the etiology of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Our knowledge of these mechanisms is limited by the difficulty of obtaining in vivo intracellular data. To quantitatively distinguish significant transport and metabolic mechanisms from limited experimental data, we developed a physiologically based, multiscale mathematical model of cellular metabolic dynamics in skeletal muscle. The model describes mass transport and metabolic processes including distinctive processes of the cytosol and mitochondria. The model simulated skeletal muscle metabolic responses to insulin corresponding to human hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies. Insulin-mediated rate of glucose disposal was the primary model input. For model validation, simulations were compared with experimental data: intracellular metabolite concentrations and patterns of glucose disposal. Model variations were simulated to investigate three alternative mechanisms to explain insulin enhancements: Model 1 (M.1), simple mass action; M.2, insulin-mediated activation of key metabolic enzymes (i.e., hexokinase, glycogen synthase, pyruvate dehydrogenase); or M.3, parallel activation by a phenomenological insulin-mediated intracellular signal that modifies reaction rate coefficients. These simulations indicated that models M.1 and M.2 were not sufficient to explain the experimentally measured metabolic responses. However, by application of mechanism M.3, the model predicts metabolite concentration changes and glucose partitioning patterns consistent with experimental data. The reaction rate fluxes quantified by this detailed model of insulin/glucose metabolism provide information that can be used to evaluate the development of type 2 diabetes.

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