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Articles by T. Olson
Total Records ( 3 ) for T. Olson
  V.L. Christensen , L.G. Bagley , T. Olson , J.L. Grimes , R.D. Rowland and D.T. Ort
  Supplementing 500 ppm of a chelated calcium proteinate (CCP) to a commercial breeder diet resulted in thicker shells and improved embryo livability. The CCP diet was fed to one half of a flock of breeders on a commercial farm that was suffering shell problems, and a standard commercial diet was fed to the remaining half. Egg production, eggshell thickness, fertility and hatchability of eggs were all monitored over an 18 wk laying period. Feeding CCP increased shell thickness and reduced numbers of cull eggs after 8 wk of lay compared to the controls. When differences in eggshell thickness were seen after 10 weeks of egg production, embryo survival and cardiac physiology were examined in three trials comparing the thicker shells to thin. Thick shells (0.44 versus 0.39 mm) improved embryo survival 2% by decreasing numbers of embryos dying late in development compared to controls and affected cardiac physiology. Thus, thick shells may improve embryo viability by affecting cardiac health during the plateau stage in oxygen consumption.
  V.L. Christensen , L.G. Bagley , T. Olson , J.L. Grimes and D.T. Ort
  Embryo heart rates were measured on 400 fertilized turkey eggs (399 viable embryos) at 4 day intervals beginning at day 12 of development. Heart rates varied directly with eggshell porosity and were significantly and positively correlated with eggshell conductance (G) and conductance constants (k) but not with initial egg weight. When only eggs with embryos that died were analyzed the significant correlation coefficients increased. In a second experiment, eggshell pores were occluded to reduce G then heart rates were measured. Heart rates decreased concomitantly with decreases in G. In the final experiment, approximately 15,912 eggs were weighed individually to calculate G for each egg and were then incubated. Embryo survival was noted in High and Low G groups. Embryo heart rate and cardiac physiology in each group was measured. Low G reduced heart rates and improved embryo survival and cardiac physiology compared to High G. Thus, cardiomyopathy due to High G and its consequent lack of energy for myocardial function may contribute to turkey embryo mortality late in development.
  V.L. Christensen , L.G. Bagley , J. Prestwich , T. Olson , M.J. Wineland and D.T. Ort
  The relationship describing eggshell conductance constants (k) suggests that eggshell conductance (G) is directly related to the length of the incubation period, but inversely with the weight of the egg. Prior studies showed clearly that G is a factor in cardiac health. We tested the hypothesis in the current study that the length of the incubation period may be a factor along with G that affects cardiac physiology and embryo survival. Incubation temperatures were reduced stepwise by 0.2oC in three treatments (37.5, 37.3 and 37.1oC) to prolong embryo developmental periods. The length of the developmental period was increased concomitantly in preliminary trials by 6 and 12 h, respectively by the 37.3 and 37.1oC treatments compared to 37.5oC. Fertilized eggs were incubated using the three temperatures in each of three independent trials. The time of hatching was closely noted and embryo survival was compared among treatments. Embryo heart rates and cardiac physiology in each group were observed. Long developmental periods reduced heart rates in a stepwise fashion and improved embryo survival and cardiac physiology. Thus, cardiomyopathy may be influenced by the length of the developmental period of turkey embryos because longer periods facilitated energy metabolism for myocardial function. Longer developmental periods would be easier to manage than G and may contribute to better turkey embryo viability late in development
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