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Articles by T. Farboodnia
Total Records ( 12 ) for T. Farboodnia
  K. Rezai and T. Farboodnia
  In this research the effects of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 300 ppm of manganese concentration on Pisum sativum. L. (c.v.qazvin) plants growth, in nutrient solution (PH 5) on the controlled condition during 15 days have been studied. Maximum yields (dry weight of shoot and root) were obtained at 25 ppm manganese supplied in nutrient solution in comparasion with controls. The shoot/root weight ratio (SRW) showed decrease with increasing manganese in nutrient solution, this decrease in (SRW) confirmed that in toxic levels of manganese shoot have been more affected than roots of pea plant. Length of shoots and roots were retarded below and above 25 ppm of manganese supplied in nutrient solution. Manganese content in young and old leaves and roots of pea plants were determined. The distribution pattern of manganese in 5 treatments was different. Old leaves had the highest, while the young leaves had the lowest manganese content. In all treatments manganese uptake has been increased proportionally with manganese concentration in nutrient solution. Excess manganese above 50 ppm in nutrient solution has caused to unfavorable symptoms including chlorotic (yellowed) areas, brown and necrotic spots and decrease in plant size.
  K. Rezai and T. Farboodnia
  Pea plants were grown in different concentrations of manganese (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 ppm) during 15 days in culture solution. In this study, the effects of toxicity of manganese on chlorophyll content and antioxidant enzymes activity include catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and gauacol peroxidase (GPX) were investigated. The data showed that the low concentration of manganese (below 25 ppm) supplied in culture solution, induced decrease in chlorophyll content in pea plants and the high levels of manganese (above 50 ppm) inhibited chlorophyll synthesis in the leaves of this plants. Maximum and minimum rate of chlorophyll content were obtained in 25 and 200 ppm of manganese in culture solution, respectively. Our observations showed the close relationship between increase in manganese concentration and increase of antioxidant enzymes activity in pea plant grown in culture solution. The activity of APX in shoot and roots were higher than CAT and GPX. Data also suggest that the activity of antioxidant enzymes in shoot were higher than roots.
  R. Heidari , M. Khayami and T. Farboodnia
  In this research we exposed four day old seedlings of Zea mays were exposed to different concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 mM Pb(NO3)2 with pH 6 in the controlled condition. After 72 h the root of seedlings were harvested and the changes of fatty acids and total lipids percent of the samples were dermined. The percent of total lipids has been increased specially in 2mM Pb treatment. It was suggested that this was not because of inducing the process of lipids synthesis, but it was due to inhibition of growth, loss of metabolism activities and metabolite synthesis. The changes of fatty acids indicated elevated amount of unsaturated linoleic and linolenic fatty acids; which are considered as a tolerance mechanism to protect membrane systems against oxidative and heavy metals stress. But increased level of K+-leakage according to Pb concentration referred to significant decline of membrane stability. So it was concluded that Pb is a major chemical pollutant that causes different damages to root cells structure and components and Zea mays is a Pb-tolerant plant with a high potential of adaptation mechanisms like producing higher unsaturated fatty acids and the ability of forming some advantious roots from the first node of shoot that helps it to tolerate stress conditions.
  R. Heidari , M. Khayami and T. Farboodnia
  In this research we examined the effect of 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mM Pb(No3)2 with and without 0.5 mM EDTA in pH 4 and 6 on the growth and Pb accumulation in the root and shoot of four day old seedlings of Zea mays at the controlled condition in the period of 72 h. At the end of treatment we determined the length and dry weight of the root and Pb content in the root and shoot of the seedlings. In the second test we considered specially the effect of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 mM EDTA with 0.5 mM Pb(No3)2 on the seedlings of Zea mays at the same condition. After 72 h we determined the amount of Pb by Atomic Absorption and EDTA by HPLC and water content of shoot. We concluded (from the results of two tests) that: Pb absorption has grown up parallel to its concentration in growth solution and has inhibited root growth and biomass significantly. Pb taking up in pH 4 was higher than pH 6 and EDTA enhanced Pb accumulation in shoot. But water content of shoot decreased at the concentrations more than 0.5 mM EDTA in growth solution. Maximum level of EDTA accumulated in shoot of plants was at the concentration of 1.5 mM EDTA in the culture, but the highest level of Pb and the least water loss of shoot was at the equimolar Pb and EDTA (0.5 mM Pb with 0.5 mM ETDA). It may concluded that EDTA is taken up by plants, accumulated in shoots in the form of Pb-EDTA or protonated form and enhanced Pb accumulation in shoots of seedlings. So it can be used for phytoextraction of Pb and other metals not only by accumulators but also by tolerant plants such as Zea mays. But if EDTA is used for supplying plant micronutrients, its concentration should be minimized and its damage to plants should be clearly considered.
  S. Tajdoost , T. Farboodnia and R. Heidary
  The aim of this study to show the importance of salt intracellular compartmentation as a tolerance mechanism by inhibition of Na+/H+ antiporter system. In this research 4 day/old Zea mays L. seedlings (var. single cross 704) were exposed to 200 and 300 mM NaCl with and without 100 and 200 micromolar amiloride. After 48 h, the roots and shoots of seedlings were harvested separately. The changes of total Na+absorption, the amount of malondialdehyde and the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as guaiacol peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase were analysed. The results indicated that Na+ absorption has been increased by salt stress but was not influenced by amiloride. Malondialdehyde content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as guaiacol peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase were increased in salt stressed plants specially in plants treated with salt and amiloride. Therefore salt stress has caused osmotic and oxidative stress in plants and amiloride as inhibitor of vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter has been increased salt stress. Therefore we concluded that Na+ compartmentation in the cell is very important to reduce its damage in the cytosol and vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter has an essential role in Na+ homeostasis in the cell by exporting excess Na+ to the vacuole.
  S. Tajdoost , T. Farboodnia and R. Heidari
  Recent molecular studies show that genetic factors of salt tolerance in halophytes exist in glycophytes too, but they are not active. If these plants expose to low level salt stress these factors may become active and cause plants acclimation to higher salt stresses. So because of the importance of these findings in this research the effect of salt pretreatment has been examined in Zea mays seedlings. To do the experiment four day old Zea mays seedlings (Var. single cross 704) pretreated with 50 mM NaCl for the period of 20 h. Then they were transferred to 200 and 300 mM NaCl for 48 h. At the end of treatment roots and shoots of seedlings were harvested separately. The changes of K+- leakage, the amount of malondialdehyde, proline, soluble sugars and the Hill reaction rate were analyzed. The results indicated that the amount of K+- leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) have been increased because of salt-induced lipid peroxidation and membrane unstability. Soluble sugars and proline as osmoregulators has been increased in stress condition and in pretreated plants with NaCl were the highest. The rate of Hill reaction was reduced significantly in stressed plants. Therefore we concluded that salt stress causes serious physiological and biochemical damages in plants and salt pretreatment enhances tolerance mechanisms of plants and help them to tolerate salt stress and grow on salty environments.
  L. Pourabdal , R. Heidary and T. Farboodnia
  Flooding stress has many important morphological and biochemical effects on plants. Because of the importance of determination the effects of flooding on plants and understanding of the tolerance mechanisms, in this research 4 day old zea mays L. (cv. single cross 704) seedlings were exposed to 4, 7 and 10 days flooding stress. At the end of each treatment the roots and shoots of seedlings were harvested separately. To show the histological effects of flooding on plants, cross section of roots and shoots were studied with light microscope. There was no clear change in the tissues structures of leaves and stems of different treatments in comparison with controls, but in the roots of plants the aeranchyma had been developed under stress condition especially in the mesocotyl region. The roots of flooded plants grow towards the soil surface despite positive geotropism of control roots. The chlorophyll a and b content and the ratio of chlorophylls a/b have been decreased but the amounts of soluble sugars have been increased in both the roots and shoots of seedlings. We conclude that flooding influences plants growth and life and development of aeranchyma and vegetative roots help plants to adapt itself to stress condition. So it is very important to know which plants are sensitive or tolerant and what are tolerance mechanisms in different plants to succeed in agricultural efforts.
  F. Ghezelbash , T. Farboodnia , R. Heidari and N. Agh
  In this study the effects of (20, 30, 40, 50 ppt) salinities and (2500, 4500, 6500 Lux) luminances on the changes of chlorophylls, carbohydrates, proline and proteins of unicellular microalga Tetraselmis chuii have been studied in the controlled conditions. The results indicated that the amounts of all of these parameters have been influenced by the salinity and light intensities. The amount of proteins have not been changed significantly in all cases. Carbohydrats and proline contents as osmoregulators have been increased in stress conditions. But the amount of chlorophylls have been reduced while carotenoids contents have been increased. So we conclude that as like as higher plants high and low (in halophytes) salinities and light intensities cause some biochemical changes in unicellular green microalgea. In many cases adaptation mechanisms to stress conditions are the same in them, such as increased accumulation of proline and carbohydrates and some changes in pigments and protein contents of the cells of organism. Due to these results and other similarities, perhaps higher plants have been originated from these green unicellular algae.
  F. Ghezelbash , T. Farboodnia , R. Heidari and N. Agh
  In this study, the effects of (20, 30, 40 and 50 ppt) salinities and (500, 2500, 4500 and 6500 lux) luminance on the changes of the amount of biomass and the growth rate of the microalgae Tetraselmis chuii. have been studied in the controlled conditions. The growth rate, has been expressed as the number of cells mL 1. The results have indicated that the growth rate of this microalgae has varied and influenced by the salinity and light intensities. In this research, growth rate has been decreased by the salinity and light intensity and the highest biomass was observed in 40 ppt salinity 4500 lux and the lowest was in 20 ppt salinity 500 lux. We conclude that as like as higher plants high and low (in halophytes) salinities and light intensities cause some changes in different phases of growth rate and other biochemical aspects in unicellular green microalgea. So to maintain such these researches help us to find out the best condition that suits for the growth and culture of microalgea specially those that more important economically and are used by other organisms in food chain.
  L. Pourabdal , R. Heidary and T. Farboodnia
  Flooding results in major changes in the soil environment. The slow diffusion rate of gases in water limits the oxygen supply; which affects aerobic root respiration as well as many (bio) geochemical processes in the soil. Production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and induction of oxidative stress in plant tissues are some of the other effects of flooding. Malondealdehyde (MDA) production is the indicator of lipid peroxidation reactions. A significant increase in MDA in plants which were flooded probably is the indication of fatty acid oxidation in the present of free radicals generated by flooding. In this research, seeds of zea mays were sown in pots filled with vermiculate and then the pots were transferred to a controlled growth room with photoperiod of 16/8h light/dark and temperature 27/23 day/night. After 24 h, the seedlings were flooded for 4, 7 and 10 days. After sampling MDA content as well as lipid peroxidation reaction, total protein content and activity including CAT, GPX and APX were measured, in those plants which were flooded total protein increased significantly. Flooded plants had a much higher MDA content than unflooded control plants. Antioxidant enzymes activity in flooded plants such as guaiacol peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase increased.
  F. Khosravinejad , R. Heydari and T. Farboodnia
  Antioxidant enzymes are related to the resistance to various abiotic stresses including salinity. Barley is relatively tolerant to saline stress among crop plants, but little information is available on barley antioxidant enzymes under saline stress. We investigated antioxidant responses of activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX) Andguaiacol Peroxidase (GPX) to saline stress in two barley varieties named Hordeum vulgare L. var. Afzal and var. EMB82-12 treated with 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 mM NaCl for 3 days. The MDA contact of Afzal plants grown under different salt regimes remained nearly constant but it largely increased in EMB82-12 plants under the same conditions. There was a liner and significant correlation in CAT, APX, SOD, GPX activities in Afzal plants in response to increased salt concentration. The strong and positive correlation between antioxidant enzymes and salt concentrations, may account for the MDA level of Afzal plants remaining constant in response to different salt regimes. In general, the activities of antioxidant enzymes were increased in the root and shoot under saline stress. But the increase was more significant and consistent in the root. Among the antioxidant enzymes, CAT activity was increased the most drastically.
  F. Khosravinejad , R. Heydari and T. Farboodnia
  Salinity (NaCl Stress) was applied with 50, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mM NaCl. The shoot and root respiration of 2 barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Afzal and var. EMB 82-12) were determined in various concentrations of NaCl. Chlorophyll a,b and total chlorophyll content were significantly decreased, but carotenoids content increased under salinity. Decrease of chlorophyll content in EMB 82-12 was higher than Afzal, but carotenoids content in Afzal var. was higher than EMB 82-12. Relative Water Content (RWC) was used to indicate the degree of stress. Oxygen uptake declined in shoot and root with increasing NaCl concentrations. Decrease of oxygen uptake in shoot and root of EMB 82-12 variety was higher than Afzal variety. RWC decreased with increasing NaCl concentrations. Lowering of RWC reduced growth and increased shoot/root ratio. Decrease of water content in EMB 82-12 plants was higher than Afzal plants. Shoot/root ratio in EMB 82-12 var.was higher than Afzal.
 
 
 
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