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Articles by T. D Gallardo
Total Records ( 2 ) for T. D Gallardo
  C. M Contreras , E. A Akbay , T. D Gallardo , J. M Haynie , S Sharma , O Tagao , N Bardeesy , M Takahashi , J Settleman , K. K Wong and D. H. Castrillon
  Cristina M. Contreras, Esra A. Akbay, Teresa D. Gallardo, J. Marshall Haynie, Sreenath Sharma, Osamu Tagao, Nabeel Bardeesy, Masaya Takahashi, Jeff Settleman, Kwok-Kin Wong, and Diego H. Castrillon

Endometrial cancer – the most common malignancy of the female reproductive tract – arises from the specialized epithelial cells that line the inner surface of the uterus. Although significant advances have been made in our understanding of this disease in recent years, one significant limitation has been the lack of a diverse genetic toolkit for the generation of mouse models. We identified a novel endometrial-specific gene, Sprr2f, and developed a Sprr2f-Cre transgene for conditional gene targeting within endometrial epithelium. We then used this tool to generate a completely penetrant Lkb1 (also known as Stk11)-based mouse model of invasive endometrial cancer. Strikingly, female mice with homozygous endometrial Lkb1 inactivation did not harbor discrete endometrial neoplasms, but instead underwent diffuse malignant transformation of their entire endometrium with rapid extrauterine spread and death, suggesting that Lkb1 inactivation was sufficient to promote the development of invasive endometrial cancer. Mice with heterozygous endometrial Lkb1 inactivation only rarely developed tumors, which were focal and arose with much longer latency, arguing against the idea – suggested by some prior studies – that Lkb1 is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor. Lastly, the finding that endometrial cancer cell lines were especially sensitive to the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor rapamycin prompted us to test its efficacy against Lkb1-driven endometrial cancers. Rapamycin monotherapy not only greatly slowed disease progression, but also led to striking regression of pre-existing tumors. These studies demonstrate that Lkb1 is a uniquely potent endometrial tumor suppressor, but also suggest that the clinical responses of some types of invasive cancers to mTOR inhibitors may be linked to Lkb1 status.

  R. M Hinman , W. A Nichols , T. M Diaz , T. D Gallardo , D. H Castrillon and A. B. Satterthwaite

B cell antigen receptor (BCR) cross-linking promotes proliferation and survival of mature B cells. Phosphoinositide-3-kinase-mediated down-regulation of pro-apoptotic and anti-mitogenic genes such as the Foxo family of transcription factors is an important component of this process. Previously, we demonstrated that BCR signaling decreases expression of transcripts for Foxo1, Foxo3 and Foxo4. We now show that BCR-induced down-regulation of Foxo3 and Foxo4 mRNA expression occurs via distinct mechanisms from those established for Foxo1. While Foxo1, Foxo3 and Foxo4 bind the same DNA sequence, the differential control of their expression upon B cell activation suggests that they may have unique functions in the B lineage. To begin to address this issue, we evaluated B cell development and function in Foxo3–/– mice. No effect of Foxo3 deficiency was observed with respect to the following parameters in the splenic B cell compartment: sub-population distribution, proliferation, in vitro differentiation and expression of the Foxo target genes cyclin G2 and B cell translocation gene 1. However, Foxo3–/– mice demonstrated increased basal levels of IgG2a, IgG3 and IgA. A significant reduction in pre-B cell numbers was also observed in Foxo3–/– bone marrow. Finally, recirculating B cells in the bone marrow and peripheral blood were decreased in Foxo3–/– mice, perhaps due to lower than normal expression of receptor for sphingosine-1 phosphate, which mediates egress from lymphoid organs. Thus, Foxo3 makes a unique contribution to B cell development, B cell localization and control of Ig levels.

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