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Articles by T Yamamoto
Total Records ( 7 ) for T Yamamoto
  T Yamamoto , U Watanabe , M Fujimoto and N. Sako

Previous human sensory evaluation studies have shown that glutathione (GSH) enhances deliciousness, accompanied by thickness, mouthfulness, and continuity feeling, which is known as "kokumi" in Japanese, in an umami solution containing monosodium glutamate and 5'-inosine monophosphate (IMP). We conducted behavioral and electrophysiological experiments to explore possible interactions of taste effectiveness between GSH and umami substances in mice. The 2-bottle preference test revealed that the mice preferred GSH at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 mM. When GSH was added to IMP or a mixture of IMP and monopotassium glutamate (MPG), the mice showed increased preference for these solutions over the individual IMP or the binary mixture of IMP and MPG in both short-term and long-term tests. The addition of GSH to MPG, however, did not increase preference. Neural responses of the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves to the mixture of IMP and GSH showed synergism, whereas synergism was not observed in the mixture of MPG and GSH in either taste nerve. Another behavioral study with the use of the conditioned taste aversion paradigm showed that aversions to MPG generalized moderately to GSH, but aversions to GSH did not generalize to MPG. The present study suggests that GSH enhances preference for umami solutions containing 5'-ribonucleotide rather than glutamate. On the basis of these results, we discuss possible receptors involved for the action of GSH.

  C. P Hsu , P Zhai , T Yamamoto , Y Maejima , S Matsushima , N Hariharan , D Shao , H Takagi , S Oka and J. Sadoshima

Silent information regulator 1 (Sirt1), a class III histone deacetylase, retards aging and protects the heart from oxidative stress. We here examined whether Sirt1 is protective against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R).

Methods and Results—

Protein and mRNA expression of Sirt1 is significantly reduced by I/R. Cardiac-specific Sirt1–/– mice exhibited a significant increase (44±5% versus 15±5%; P=0.01) in the size of myocardial infarction/area at risk. In transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of Sirt1, both myocardial infarction/area at risk (15±4% versus 36±8%; P=0.004) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling–positive nuclei (4±3% versus 10±1%; P<0.003) were significantly reduced compared with nontransgenic mice. In Langendorff-perfused hearts, the functional recovery during reperfusion was significantly greater in transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of Sirt1 than in nontransgenic mice. Sirt1 positively regulates expression of prosurvival molecules, including manganese superoxide dismutase, thioredoxin-1, and Bcl-xL, whereas it negatively regulates the proapoptotic molecules Bax and cleaved caspase-3. The level of oxidative stress after I/R, as evaluated by anti-8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine staining, was negatively regulated by Sirt1. Sirt1 stimulates the transcriptional activity of FoxO1, which in turn plays an essential role in mediating Sirt1-induced upregulation of manganese superoxide dismutase and suppression of oxidative stress in cardiac myocytes. Sirt1 plays an important role in mediating I/R-induced increases in the nuclear localization of FoxO1 in vivo.


These results suggest that Sirt1 protects the heart from I/R injury through upregulation of antioxidants and downregulation of proapoptotic molecules through activation of FoxO and decreases in oxidative stress.

  M Yamaji , T Tsutamoto , C Kawahara , K Nishiyama , T Yamamoto , M Fujii and M. Horie

Background— The pathophysiological role of cortisol, which binds to the mineralocorticoid receptor with an affinity equal to that of aldosterone (ALD), may be influenced by oxidative stress in patients with chronic heart failure. We evaluated cardiac event prediction using cortisol levels in chronic heart failure, in comparison with ALD, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and the impact of oxidative stress.

Methods and Results— We measured the plasma levels of biomarkers such as BNP, ALD, adrenocorticotropic hormone, serum cortisol, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), a biomarker of oxidative stress, in 319 consecutive symptomatic patients with chronic heart failure, and we followed these patients for a mean period of 33 months. During the follow-up period, 29 patients had cardiac events (death or hospitalization). Plasma levels of BNP, ALD, adrenocorticotropic hormone, oxLDL, and serum cortisol (16.8±1.8 µg/dL versus 12.4±0.3 µg/dL, P=0.01) were significantly higher in patients with cardiac events than in those without cardiac events. On stepwise multivariate analyses, high levels of BNP (P=0.0003), renin (P=0.002), cortisol (P=0.02), and oxLDL (P=0.002) were independent predictors of cardiac events, but ALD and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels were not. In patients with serum cortisol ≥12.5 µg/dL, the hazard ratio of cardiac events in patients with oxLDL ≥12 U/mL was 3.5 compared with that in patients with oxLDL <12 U/mL (P=0.008).

Conclusions— These findings indicate that serum cortisol levels were a complementary and incremental cardiac event risk predictor in combination with BNP in patients with chronic heart failure and that cardiac event prediction based on cortisol levels was influenced by oxidative stress.

  M Li , Y Seki , P. H. L Freitas , M Nagata , T Kojima , S Sultana , S Ubaidus , T Maeda , J Shimomura , J. E Henderson , M Tamura , K Oda , Z Liu , Y Guo , R Suzuki , T Yamamoto , R Takagi and N. Amizuka

The signaling axis comprising the parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related peptide (PTHrP), the PTH/PTHrP receptor and the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) plays a central role in chondrocyte proliferation. The Indian hedgehog (IHH) gene is normally expressed in early hypertrophic chondrocytes, and its negative feedback loop was shown to regulate PTH/PTHrP receptor signaling. In this study, we examined the regulation of PTH/PTHrP receptor gene expression in a FGFR3-transfected chondrocytic cell line, CFK2. Expression of IHH could not be verified on these cells, with consequent absence of hypertrophic differentiation. Also, expression of the PTH/PTHrP receptor (75% reduction of total mRNA) and the PTHrP (50% reduction) genes was reduced in CFK2 cells transfected with FGFR3 cDNA. Interestingly, we verified significant reduction in cell growth and increased apoptosis in the transfected cells. STAT1 was detected in the nuclei of the CFK2 cells transfected with FGFR3 cDNA, indicating predominance of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. The reduction in PTH/PTHrP receptor gene in CFK2 cells overexpressing FGFR3 was partially blocked by treatment with an inhibitor of JAK3 (WHI-P131), but not with an inhibitor of MAPK (SB203580) or JAK2 (AG490). Altogether, these findings suggest that FGFR3 down-regulates PTH/PTHrP receptor gene expression via the JAK/STAT signaling in chondrocytic cells.

  K Narimatsu , M Li , P. H. L de Freitas , S Sultana , S Ubaidus , T Kojima , L Zhucheng , G Ying , R Suzuki , T Yamamoto , K Oda and N. Amizuka

Preosteoblasts are currently defined as the precursors of mature osteoblasts. These cells are morphologically diverse and may represent a continuum during osteoblast differentiation. We have attempted to categorize the different preosteoblastic phenotypes in vivo by examining bone cells expressing the runt-related transcription factor 2, alkaline phosphatase and BrdU incorporation – histological traits of a preosteoblast – under transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM observations demonstrated, at least, in part two preosteoblastic subtypes: (i) a cell rich in cisterns of rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) with vesicles and vacuoles and (ii) a subtype featuring extended cytoplasmic processes that connect with distant cells, with a small amount of scattered cisterns of rER and with many vesicles and vacuoles. ER-rich cells, whose cellular machinery is similar to that of an osteoblast, were often seen adjacent to mature osteoblasts, and therefore, may be ready for terminal differentiation. In contrast, ER-poor and vesicle-rich cells extended their cytoplasmic processes to mature osteoblasts and, frequently, to bone-resorbing osteoclasts. The abundant vesicles and vacuoles identified in this cell type indicate that this cell is involved in vesicular transport rather than matrix synthesis activity. In summary, our study verified the morphological diversity and the ultrastructural properties of osteoblastic cells in vivo.

  M Omatsu Kanbe , T Yamamoto , Y Mori and H. Matsuura

The present study was designed to examine the postnatal developmental changes of atypically shaped cardiomyocytes (ACMs) prepared from the heart of newborn [postnatal day 1 (day-1)] through aged (12-month-old) mice. ACMs were identified as a novel type of self-beating cardiomyocyte with a peculiar morphology in mouse cardiac ventricles. The cell length of ACMs significantly increased during the first three postnatal months and further increased over the following 9 months. In contrast, the population of ACMs was significantly decreased within the first 5 weeks and reached a plateau in the adult stage. ACMs obtained from newborn and adult mice exhibited similar spontaneous action potentials. The expression of the fetal cardiac gene products atrial natriuretic peptide and voltage-gated T-type Ca2+ channel CaV3.2 was confirmed by immunostaining in ACMs obtained from both newborn and aged mice. These observations provide evidence that ACMs that exhibit spontaneous beating survive the long-term postnatal development of cardiac ventricles while preserving the expression of fetal cardiac genes. This manuscript contains online supplemental material at Please visit this article online to view these materials. (J Histochem Cytochem 58:543–551, 2010)

  T Matsumura , J Kawamura Tsuzuku , T Yamamoto , K Semba and J. i. Inoue

Tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF)-interacting protein with a forkhead-associated domain (TIFA) activates TRAF6 to induce NF-B activation. TIFA-related protein, TIFAB, is highly expressed in the spleen and inhibits TIFA-mediated TRAF6 activation. However, little is known about cell types that express TIFAB and its function in those cells. Here, we show that TIFAB is mainly expressed in B cells rather than T cells in the spleen and that the expression level was much higher in dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages than that in splenic lymphocytes. TIFAB expression was downregulated when B cells, DCs or macrophages were stimulated by TRAF6-mediated proliferative or maturation signals including those emanating from CD40, sIgM and TLRs. Furthermore, microinjection experiments using NIH3T3 cells revealed that TIFAB inhibited entry into the S phase of the cell cycle. Our results suggest that TIFAB could act as a negative regulator of the TRAF6-induced cellular function such as B cell proliferation and maturation of DCs and macrophages.

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