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Articles by T Yamaguchi
Total Records ( 5 ) for T Yamaguchi
  T Kasai , Y Usui , T Yoshioka , N Yanagisawa , Y Takata , K Narui , T Yamaguchi , A Yamashina , S. i Momomura and for the JASV Investigators

Background— In patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), the presence of sleep-disordered breathing, including either obstructive sleep apnea or Cheyne-Stokes respiration-central sleep apnea, is associated with a poor prognosis. A large-scale clinical trial showed that continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) did not improve the prognosis of such patients with CHF, probably because of insufficient sleep-disordered breathing suppression. Recently, it was reported that adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) can effectively treat sleep-disordered breathing. However, there are no specific data about the efficacy of flow-triggered ASV for cardiac function in patients with CHF with sleep-disordered breathing. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of flow-triggered ASV to CPAP in patients with CHF with coexisting obstructive sleep apnea and Cheyne-Stokes respiration-central sleep apnea.

Methods and Results— Thirty-one patients with CHF, defined as left ventricular ejection fraction <50% and New York Heart Association class ≥II, with coexisting obstructive sleep apnea and Cheyne-Stokes respiration-central sleep apnea, were randomly assigned to either CPAP or flow-triggered ASV. The suppression of respiratory events, changes in cardiac function, and compliance with the devices during the 3-month study period were compared. Although both devices decreased respiratory events, ASV more effectively suppressed respiratory events (AHI [apnea-hypopnea index], –35.4±19.5 with ASV; –23.2±12.0 with CPAP, P<0.05). Compliance was significantly greater with ASV than with CPAP (5.2±0.9 versus 4.4±1.1 h/night, P<0.05). The improvements in quality-of-life and left ventricular ejection fraction were greater in the ASV group (LVEF [left ventricular ejection fraction], +9.1±4.7% versus +1.9±10.9%).

Conclusions— These results suggest that patients with coexisting obstructive sleep apnea and Cheyne-Stokes respiration-central sleep apnea may receive greater benefit from treatment with ASV than with CPAP.

  A Enomoto , J Watahiki , T Yamaguchi , T Irie , T Tachikawa and K. Maki

It is well known that mastication has a significant influence on mandibular growth and development, but the mechanism behind this effect has not yet been clarified. Furthermore, no studies have examined the effects of changes in mastication on the three-dimensional (3D) morphometry of the mandible. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influences of changes in mastication on mandibular growth and morphology. Twenty-five 3-week-old (at the time of weaning) imprinting control region mice were randomly divided into three groups: mice fed a hard diet (HD), mice fed a soft diet (SD), and mice alternately fed hard and soft diets (HSDs) every week for 4 weeks. The morphometry of the mandible was analysed using 3D microcomputed tomography (µCT). Statistical analysis was undertaken using a t-test.

µCT analysis showed that the condylar width was significantly greater in the HD group than in the SD group after 1 week. After 4 weeks, mandibular length was significantly longer and ramus height was greater in the HSD group than in the other two groups. Bone volume was significantly less in the SD group than in the other two groups after 4 weeks. These findings suggest that changes in mastication markedly affect mandibular condylar cartilage growth and mandibular morphology. It is considered that dietary education at an early age is important in order to prevent disruption of the development of the mandible.

  T Yamaguchi , F Cubizolles , Y Zhang , N Reichert , H Kohler , C Seiser and P. Matthias

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate gene expression by deacetylating histones and also modulate the acetylation of a number of nonhistone proteins, thus impinging on various cellular processes. Here, we analyzed the major class I enzymes HDAC1 and HDAC2 in primary mouse fibroblasts and in the B-cell lineage. Fibroblasts lacking both enzymes fail to proliferate in culture and exhibit a strong cell cycle block in the G1 phase that is associated with up-regulation of the CDK inhibitors p21WAF1/CIP1 and p57Kip2 and of the corresponding mRNAs. This regulation is direct, as in wild-type cells HDAC1 and HDAC2 are bound to the promoter regions of the p21 and p57 genes. Furthermore, analysis of the transcriptome and of histone modifications in mutant cells demonstrated that HDAC1 and HDAC2 have only partly overlapping roles. Next, we eliminated HDAC1 and HDAC2 in the B cells of conditionally targeted mice. We found that B-cell development strictly requires the presence of at least one of these enzymes: When both enzymes are ablated, B-cell development is blocked at an early stage, and the rare remaining pre-B cells show a block in G1 accompanied by the induction of apoptosis. In contrast, elimination of HDAC1 and HDAC2 in mature resting B cells has no negative impact, unless these cells are induced to proliferate. These results indicate that HDAC1 and HDAC2, by normally repressing the expression of p21 and p57, regulate the G1-to-S-phase transition of the cell cycle.

  T Yamaguchi , T Suzuki , H Arai , S Tanabe and Y. Atomi

Local hyperthermia has been widely used as physical therapy for a number of diseases such as inflammatory osteoarticular disorders, tendinitis, and muscle injury. Local hyperthermia is clinically applied to improve blood and lymphatic flow to decrease swelling of tissues (e.g., skeletal muscle). As for muscle repair following injury, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of hyperthermia-induced muscle repair are unknown. In this study, we investigated the direct effects of continuous heat stress on the differentiation of cultured mammalian myoblasts. Compared with control cultures grown at 37°C, incubation at 39°C (continuous mild heat stress; CMHS) enhanced myotube diameter, whereas myotubes were poorly formed at 41°C by primary human skeletal muscle culture cells, human skeletal muscle myoblasts (HSMMs), and C2C12 mouse myoblasts. In HSMMs and C2C12 cells exposed to CMHS, mRNA and protein levels of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) type I were increased compared with the control cultures. The mRNA level of MyHC IIx was unaltered in HSMMs and decreased in C2C12 cells, compared with cells that were not exposed to heat stress. These results indicated a fast-to-slow fiber-type shift in myoblasts. We also examined upstream signals that might be responsible for the fast-to-slow shift of fiber types. CMHS enhanced the mRNA and protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- coactivator (PGC)-1 in HSMMS and C2C12 cells but not the activities of MAPKs (ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK) in HSMMs and C2C12 cells. These data suggest that CMHS induces a fast-to-slow fiber-type shift of mammalian myoblasts through PGC-1.

  T Nakamura , Y Kado , T Yamaguchi , H Matsumura , K Ishikawa and T. Inoue

Peroxiredoxin (Prx) reduces hydrogen peroxide and alkyl peroxides to water and corresponding alcohols, respectively. The reaction is dependent on a peroxidatic cysteine, whose sulphur atom nucleophilically attacks one of the oxygen atoms of the peroxide substrate. In spite of the many structural studies that have been carried out on this reaction, the tertiary structure of the hydrogen peroxide-bound form of Prx has not been elucidated. In this paper, we report the crystal structure of Prx from Aeropyrum pernix K1 in the peroxide-bound form. The conformation of the polypeptide chain is the same as that in the reduced apo-form. The hydrogen peroxide molecule is in close contact with the peroxidatic Cys50 and the neighbouring Thr47 and Arg126 side chain atoms, as well as with the main chain nitrogen atoms of Val49 and Cys50. Bound peroxide was also observed in the mutant C50S, in which the peroxidatic cysteine was replaced by serine. Therefore, the sulphur atom of the peroxidatic cysteine is not essential for peroxide binding, although it enhances the binding affinity. Hydrogen peroxide binds to the protein so that it fills the active site pocket. This study provides insight into the early stage of the Prx reaction.

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