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Articles by T Wiltshire
Total Records ( 2 ) for T Wiltshire
  A. H Harrill , P. B Watkins , S Su , P. K Ross , D. E Harbourt , I. M Stylianou , G. A Boorman , M. W Russo , R. S Sackler , S. C Harris , P. C Smith , R Tennant , M Bogue , K Paigen , C Harris , T Contractor , T Wiltshire , I Rusyn and D. W. Threadgill
 

Interindividual variability in response to chemicals and drugs is a common regulatory concern. It is assumed that xenobiotic-induced adverse reactions have a strong genetic basis, but many mechanism-based investigations have not been successful in identifying susceptible individuals. While recent advances in pharmacogenetics of adverse drug reactions show promise, the small size of the populations susceptible to important adverse events limits the utility of whole-genome association studies conducted entirely in humans. We present a strategy to identify genetic polymorphisms that may underlie susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. First, in a cohort of healthy adults who received the maximum recommended dose of acetaminophen (4 g/d x 7 d), we confirm that about one third of subjects develop elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase, indicative of liver injury. To identify the genetic basis for this susceptibility, a panel of 36 inbred mouse strains was used to model genetic diversity. Mice were treated with 300 mg/kg or a range of additional acetaminophen doses, and the extent of liver injury was quantified. We then employed whole-genome association analysis and targeted sequencing to determine that polymorphisms in Ly86, Cd44, Cd59a, and Capn8 correlate strongly with liver injury and demonstrated that dose-curves vary with background. Finally, we demonstrated that variation in the orthologous human gene, CD44, is associated with susceptibility to acetaminophen in two independent cohorts. Our results indicate a role for CD44 in modulation of susceptibility to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. These studies demonstrate that a diverse mouse population can be used to understand and predict adverse toxicity in heterogeneous human populations through guided resequencing.

  S. A Kelly , D. L Nehrenberg , J. L Peirce , K Hua , B. M Steffy , T Wiltshire , F Pardo Manuel de Villena , T Garland and D. Pomp
 

Exercise is essential for health, yet the amount, duration, and intensity that individuals engage in are strikingly variable, even under prescription. Our focus was to identify the locations and effects of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling genetic predisposition for exercise-related traits, utilizing a large advanced intercross line (AIL) of mice. This AIL (G4) population originated from a reciprocal cross between mice with genetic propensity for increased voluntary exercise [high-runner (HR) line, selectively bred for increased wheel running] and the inbred strain C57BL/6J. After adjusting for family structure, we detected 32 significant and 13 suggestive QTL representing both daily running traits (distance, duration, average speed, and maximum speed) and the mean of these traits on days 5 and 6 (the selection criteria for HR) of a 6-day test conducted at 8 wk of age, with many colocalizing to similar genomic regions. Additionally, seven significant and five suggestive QTL were observed for the slope and intercept of a linear regression across all 6 days of running, some representing a combination of the daily traits. We also observed two significant and two suggestive QTL for body mass before exercise. These results, from a well-defined animal model, reinforce a genetic basis for the predisposition to engage in voluntary exercise, dissect this predisposition into daily segments across a continuous time period, and present unique QTL that may provide insight into the initiation, continuation, and temporal pattern of voluntary activity in mammals.

 
 
 
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