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Articles by T Takahashi
Total Records ( 7 ) for T Takahashi
  Y Watanabe , T Takahashi , A Okajima , M Shiokawa , N Ishii , I Katano , R Ito , M Ito , M Minegishi , N Minegishi , S Tsuchiya and K. Sugamura
 

‘Humanized mice’ are anticipated to be a valuable tool for studying the human immune system, but the reconstituted human immune cells have not yet been well characterized. Here, we extensively investigated the differentiation and functions of human B and T cells in a supra-immunodeficient mouse strain, NOD/shi-scid/cnull (NOG) reconstituted with CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells obtained from umbilical cord blood. In these hu-HSC NOG mice, the development of human B cells was partially blocked, and a significant number of B-cell progenitors accumulated in the spleen. The mature CD19+IgM+IgD+ human B cells of the hu-HSC NOG mice could produce IgG in vivo and in vitro by antigenic stimulation. In contrast, although human T cells with an apparently normal phenotype developed, most of them could neither proliferate nor produce IL-2 in response to antigenic stimulation by anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies in vitro. The positive selection of human T cells in the thymus was sufficiently functional, if not complete, and mainly mediated by mouse class II, suggesting that the human T cells lost their function in the periphery. We found that multiple mechanisms were involved in the T-cell abnormalities. Collectively, our results demonstrate that further improvements are necessary before humanized mice with a functional human immune system are achieved.

  Y Hamamoto , M Kataoka , T Senba , K Uwatsu , Y Sugawara , T Inoue , S Sakai , S Aono , T Takahashi and S. Oda
  Objective

To find vertebral metastases with high risk of symptomatic malignant spinal cord compression (MSCC), features of vertebral metastases caused motor deficits of the lower extremities were examined.

Methods

From 2004 through 2006, 78 patients with metastases of the thoracic and/or the cervical spine were treated with radiation therapy (RT). Of these, 86 irradiated lesions in 73 patients were evaluable by magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography at the initiation of RT and were reviewed retrospectively in this study. Twenty-eight patients (38%) had motor deficits at the initiation of RT. Assessed factors were age, sex, primary disease (lung, breast, digestive system and other cancer), lamina involvement, main level of tumor location and vertebral-body involvement.

Results

Incidence of motor deficits at the initiation of RT was 55% for lesions with lamina involvement and 5% for lesions without lamina involvement (P < 0.0001). Incidence of motor deficits was 15% for lesions located mainly in the cervical spine and/or the upper thoracic spine (Th1–4), 54% for lesions located mainly in the middle thoracic spine (MTS) (Th5–8) and 30% for lesions located mainly in the lower thoracic spine (Th9–12) (P = 0.0095). Age, sex, primary disease and vertebral-body involvement were not statistically significant factors for incidence of motor deficits due to MSCC (P > 0.9999, P = 0.7798, P = 0.1702 and P = 0.366, respectively).

Conclusions

Vertebral metastases with lamina involvement tended to cause symptomatic MSCC. Latent development of MSCC occurred more frequently in the MTS compared with other levels of the thoracic and the cervical spine.

  Y Niibe , M Kenjo , H Onishi , Y Ogawa , T Kazumoto , I Ogino , K Tsujino , Y Harima , T Takahashi , A Anbai , E Tsuchida , T Toita , M Takemoto , H Yamashita and K. Hayakawa
  Objective

The current study was a retrospective questionnaire survey of stage IIIb adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix treated with high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy combined with external beam radiation therapy in Japan aimed to investigate the optimal dose on the basis of the biological effective dose and prognostic factors.

Methods

Between 1990 and 2000, 61 patients with stage IIIb adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix underwent high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy combined with external beam radiation therapy in 19 major hospitals in Japan. This retrospective questionnaire survey was performed by mail including survey charts to be fulfilled by radiation oncologists in these 19 major hospital. Fifty had only adenocarcinoma components and 11 had adenosquamous cell carcinoma components. All patients were treated with high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy combined with external beam radiation therapy. Total biological effective dose (T-BED10) was calculated from the sum of the biological effective doses of the external beam radiation therapy and the intracavitary brachytherapy. Thirty-two patients underwent chemotherapy.

Results

The 5-year overall survival rate of all patients was 20.2%. Stratified by total biological effective dose, the 5-year overall survival rate was 0% for T-BED10 <75 Gy, 24.7% for T-BED10 between 75 and 100 Gy and 0% for T-BED10 >110 Gy (P = 0.15). Stratified by histopathology, the 5-year overall survival rate was 22.1% for adenocarcinoma and 13.6% for adenosquamous cell carcinoma (P = 0.43). Stratified by chemotherapy, the 5-year overall survival rate was 20.3% in patients who received chemotherapy and 20.4% in patients who did not receive chemotherapy (P = 0.96).

Conclusions

The 5-year overall survival rate of stage IIIb adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix in this retrospective questionnaire survey was 20.2%. The optimal T-BED10 and evident prognostic factors were not clear from this questionnaire survey.

  T Takahashi , S. J Wood , A. R Yung , M Walterfang , L. J Phillips , B Soulsby , Y Kawasaki , P. D McGorry , M Suzuki , D Velakoulis and C. Pantelis
 

Background

Morphological abnormalities of the superior temporal gyrus have been consistently reported in schizophrenia, but the timing of their occurrence remains unclear.

Aims

To determine whether individuals exhibit superior temporal gyral changes before the onset of psychosis.

Method

We used magnetic resonance imaging to examine grey matter volumes of the superior temporal gyrus and its subregions (planum polare, Heschl’s gyrus, planum temporale, and rostral and caudal regions) in 97 antipsychotic-naive individuals at ultra-high risk of psychosis, of whom 31 subsequently developed psychosis and 66 did not, and 42 controls.

Results

Those at risk of psychosis had significantly smaller superior temporal gyri at baseline compared with controls bilaterally, without any prominent subregional effect; however, there was no difference between those who did and did not subsequently develop psychosis.

Conclusions

Our findings indicate that grey matter reductions of the superior temporal gyrus are present before psychosis onset, and are not due to medication, but these baseline changes are not predictive of transition to psychosis.

  T Takahashi , T Ida , T Sato , Y Nakashima , Y Nakamura , A Tsuji and M. Kojima
 

Ghrelin was originally isolated from rat stomach as an endogenous ligand for the GH secretagogue receptor. The major active form of ghrelin is a 28-amino acid peptide modified by an n-octanoic acid on the serine 3 residue, and this lipid modification is essential for the biological activity of ghrelin. However, it is not clear whether prohormone convertase (PC) and ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) are the minimal requirements for synthesis of acyl-modified ghrelin in cultured cells. By using three cultured cell lines, TT, AtT20 and COS-7, in which the expression levels of processing proteases and GOAT vary, we examined the processing patterns of ghrelin precursor. We found that not only PC1/3 but also both PC2 and furin could process proghrelin to the 28-amino acid ghrelin. Moreover, the presence of PC and GOAT in the cells, as well as n-octanoic acid in the culture medium, was necessary to produce n-octanoyl ghrelin.

  T Takahashi , H Satoh , M Takaguchi , S Takafuji , H Yokoyama , S Fujii and T. Suzuki
 

Association of sulphatide with influenza A virus (IAV) haemagglutinin (HA) delivered to the cell surface promotes progeny virus production. However, it is not known whether there is direct binding of HA to sulphatide. In this study, we found that recombinant HA, which was produced by a baculovirus protein expression system from the HA gene of A/duck/HK/313/4/78 (H5N3), bound to sulphatide in a dose-dependent manner and that the binding was inhibited by a specific antibody. Our results indicate that the recombinant HA is useful for elucidation of the binding domain of HA with sulphatide and for the development of new anti-IAV agents.

  T Takahashi , N Inoue Kashino , S. i Ozawa , Y Takahashi , Y Kashino and K. Satoh
 

Photosystem II (PS II) complexes are membrane protein complexes that are composed of >20 distinct subunit proteins. Similar to many other membrane protein complexes, two PS II complexes are believed to form a homo-dimer whose molecular mass is ~650 kDa. Contrary to this well known concept, we propose that the functional form of PS II in vivo is a monomer, based on the following observations. Deprivation of lipids caused the conversion of PS II from a monomeric form to a dimeric form. Only a monomeric PS II was detected in solubilized cyanobacterial and red algal thylakoids using blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, energy transfer between PS II units, which was observed in the purified dimeric PS II, was not detected in vivo. Our proposal will lead to a re-evaluation of many crystallographic models of membrane protein complexes in terms of their oligomerization status.

 
 
 
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