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Articles by T Sugiyama
Total Records ( 3 ) for T Sugiyama
  K Nakamura , Y Sekine , Y Ouchi , M Tsujii , E Yoshikawa , M Futatsubashi , K. J Tsuchiya , G Sugihara , Y Iwata , K Suzuki , H Matsuzaki , S Suda , T Sugiyama , N Takei and N. Mori
 

Context  Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by repetitive and/or obsessive interests and behavior and by deficits in sociability and communication. Although its neurobiological underpinnings are postulated to lie in abnormalities of the serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems, the details remain unknown.

Objective  To determine the occurrence of changes in the binding of serotonin and dopamine transporters, which are highly selective markers for their respective neuronal systems.

Design  Using positron emission tomography, we measured the binding of brain serotonin and dopamine transporters in each individual with the radioligands carbon 11 (11C)–labeled trans-1,2,3,5,6,10-β-hexahydro-6-[4-(methylthio)phenyl]pyrrolo-[2,1-a]isoquinoline ([11C](+)McN-5652) and 2β-carbomethoxy-3-β-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane ([11C]WIN-35,428), respectively. Statistical parametric mapping was used for between-subject analysis and within-subject correlation analysis with respect to clinical variables.

Setting  Participants recruited from the community.

Participants  Twenty men (age range, 18-26 years; mean [SD] IQ, 99.3 [18.1]) with autism and 20 age- and IQ-matched control subjects.

Results  Serotonin transporter binding was significantly lower throughout the brain in autistic individuals compared with controls (P < .05, corrected). Specifically, the reduction in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortices was associated with the impairment of social cognition in the autistic subjects (P < .05, corrected). A significant correlation was also found between repetitive and/or obsessive behavior and interests and the reduction of serotonin transporter binding in the thalamus (P < .05, corrected). In contrast, the dopamine transporter binding was significantly higher in the orbitofrontal cortex of the autistic group (P < .05, corrected in voxelwise analysis). In the orbitofrontal cortex, the dopamine transporter binding was significantly inversely correlated with serotonin transporter binding (r = –0.61; P = .004).

Conclusions  The brains of autistic individuals have abnormalities in both serotonin transporter and dopamine transporter binding. The present findings indicate that the gross abnormalities in these neurotransmitter systems may underpin the neurophysiologic mechanism of autism. Our sample was not characteristic or representative of a typical sample of adults with autism in the community.

  H Nomura , H Wada , T Mizuno , Y Yamashita , K Saito , S Kitano , N Katayama , N Yamada , T Sugiyama , A Sudo , M Usui , S Isaji and T. Nobori
 

Background: Most patients with malignant diseases are frequently complicated with some type of thrombosis, such as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) or deep vein thrombosis (DVT)/pulmonary embolism (PE). Objective: The cohort and retrospective study was designed to examine the frequency of thrombosis in patients with malignant diseases and to evaluate the efficacy of D-dimer and soluble fibrin (SF) for the diagnosis of thrombosis. Patients/Methods: The plasma concentrations of D-dimer and SF were measured in patients with malignant diseases suspected of having thrombosis. D-dimer and SF were measured using a latex aggregation assay. Results: Thrombosis was observed in 23.3% of the patients with malignant diseases. Disseminated intravascular coagulation was frequently observed in patients with hepatoma, and DVT/PE was frequently observed in patients with colon cancer, lung cancer, and uterine cancer. The plasma levels of D-dimer and SF were increased in malignant diseases, especially hepatoma. Plasma levels of D-dimer and SF were significantly higher in patients with thrombosis in comparison to patients without thrombosis. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed the D-dimer and SF levels to be useful in the diagnosis of thrombosis. Conclusion: Elevated D-dimer and SF levels might indicate a high risk of thrombosis in patients with malignant disease; however, these assays still need to be standardized.

  E Janssen , T Sugiyama , E Winkler , H de Vries , F te Poel and N. Owen
 

Adults of lower socio-economic status (SES) participate less in physical activity than those of higher SES. Understanding the correlates of physical activity participation and how these may differ between socio-economic groups can inform policies and physical activity promotion strategies. The psychosocial correlates of leisure-time walking (the most common voluntary physical activity of adults) were assessed using a survey of 2488 randomly sampled Australian adults (response rate = 74.2%). Among respondents of higher SES, there were higher levels of positive cognitions towards physical activity, and walking for leisure was more prevalent than among those of lower SES. Relationships of psychosocial attributes with leisure-time walking differed by SES. The strongest correlate of leisure-time walking was perceived barriers for lower SES adults and enjoyment for those of higher SES. Social support from friends was associated with walking for both groups, while the effect of support from family was significant only for adults of lower SES. Strategies influencing leisure-time walking may have to target the specific needs of different socio-economic groups. For example, removing perceived barriers may be more appropriate to promote walking among lower SES adults. Interventions tailored for lower SES groups may help close the socio-economic gap in physical activity participation.

 
 
 
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