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Articles by T Shah
Total Records ( 2 ) for T Shah
  R Sofat , A. D Hingorani , L Smeeth , S. E Humphries , P. J Talmud , J Cooper , T Shah , M. S Sandhu , S. L Ricketts , S. M Boekholdt , N Wareham , K. T Khaw , M Kumari , M Kivimaki , M Marmot , F. W Asselbergs , P van der Harst , R. P.F Dullaart , G Navis , D. J van Veldhuisen , W. H Van Gilst , J. F Thompson , P McCaskie , L. J Palmer , M Arca , F Quagliarini , C Gaudio , F Cambien , V Nicaud , O Poirer , V Gudnason , A Isaacs , J. C.M Witteman , C. M van Duijn , M Pencina , R. S Vasan , R. B D'Agostino , J Ordovas , T. Y Li , S Kakko , H Kauma , M. J Savolainen , Y. A Kesaniemi , A Sandhofer , B Paulweber , J. V Sorli , A Goto , S Yokoyama , K Okumura , B. D Horne , C Packard , D Freeman , I Ford , N Sattar , V McCormack , D. A Lawlor , S Ebrahim , G. D Smith , J. J.P Kastelein , J Deanfield and J. P. Casas

Background— Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors raise high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, but torcetrapib, the first-in-class inhibitor tested in a large outcome trial, caused an unexpected blood pressure elevation and increased cardiovascular events. Whether the hypertensive effect resulted from CETP inhibition or an off-target action of torcetrapib has been debated. We hypothesized that common single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the CETP gene could help distinguish mechanism-based from off-target actions of CETP inhibitors to inform on the validity of CETP as a therapeutic target.

Methods and Results— We compared the effect of CETP single-nucleotide polymorphisms and torcetrapib treatment on lipid fractions, blood pressure, and electrolytes in up to 67 687 individuals from genetic studies and 17 911 from randomized trials. CETP single-nucleotide polymorphisms and torcetrapib treatment reduced CETP activity and had a directionally concordant effect on 8 lipid and lipoprotein traits (total, low-density lipoprotein, and HDL cholesterol; HDL2; HDL3; apolipoproteins A-I and B; and triglycerides), with the genetic effect on HDL cholesterol (0.13 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.11 to 0.14 mmol/L) being consistent with that expected of a 10-mg dose of torcetrapib (0.13 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.15). In trials, 60 mg of torcetrapib elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 4.47 mm Hg (95% CI 4.10 to 4.84 mm Hg) and 2.08 mm Hg (95% CI 1.84 to 2.31 mm Hg), respectively. However, the effect of CETP single-nucleotide polymorphisms on systolic blood pressure (0.16 mm Hg, 95% CI –0.28 to 0.60 mm Hg) and diastolic blood pressure (–0.04 mm Hg, 95% CI –0.36 to 0.28 mm Hg) was null and significantly different from that expected of 10 mg of torcetrapib.

Conclusions— Discordance in the effects of CETP single-nucleotide polymorphisms and torcetrapib treatment on blood pressure despite the concordant effects on lipids indicates the hypertensive action of torcetrapib is unlikely to be due to CETP inhibition or shared by chemically dissimilar CETP inhibitors. Genetic studies could find a place in drug-development programs as a new source of randomized evidence for drug-target validation in humans.

  T Shah , P Newcombe , L Smeeth , J Addo , J. P Casas , J Whittaker , M. A Miller , L Tinworth , S Jeffery , P Strazzullo , F. P Cappuccio and A. D. Hingorani

Eligibility for rosuvastatin treatment for cardiovascular disease prevention includes a C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration >2 mg/L. Most observational studies of CRP and cardiovascular disease have been in Europeans. We evaluated the influence of ancestry on population CRP concentration to assess the implications for statin targeting in non-Europeans.

Methods and Results—

In a systematic review and meta-analysis among 221 287 people from 89 studies, geometric mean CRP was 2.6 mg/L (95% credible interval, 2.27 to 2.96) in blacks resident in the United States (n=18 585); 2.51 mg/L (95% CI, 1.18 to 2.86) in Hispanics (n=5049); 2.34 mg/L (95% CI, 1.99 to 2.8) in South Asians (n=1053); 2.03 mg/L (95% CI, 1.77 to 2.3) in whites (n=104 949); and 1.01 mg/L (95% CI, 0.88 to 1.18) in East Asians (n=39 521). Differences were not explained by study design or CRP assay and were preserved after adjustment for age and body mass index. At age 60 years, fewer than half of East Asians but more than two thirds of Hispanics were estimated to have CRP values exceeding 2 mg/L. HapMap frequencies of CRP polymorphisms known to associate with CRP concentration but not coronary heart disease events differed by ancestry. In participant data from the Wandsworth Heart and Stroke Study including European, South Asian and African, and Caribbean-descent subjects, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and smoking contributed to between-group differences in CRP, but the majority of the difference in CRP was unexplained.


Differences in CRP concentration in populations of diverse ancestry are sufficiently large to affect statin eligibility, based on a single CRP threshold of 2 mg/L, and only partially influenced by differences in variables related to cardiovascular risk. A single threshold value of CRP for cardiovascular risk prediction could lead to inequalities in statin eligibility that may not accurately reflect underlying levels of cardiovascular risk.

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