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Articles by T Nomura
Total Records ( 3 ) for T Nomura
  K Teshima , R Murakami , E Tomitaka , T Nomura , R Toya , A Hiraki , H Nakayama , T Hirai , M Shinohara , N Oya and Y. Yamashita
  Objective

To evaluate whether saliva production reflects the parotid volume during the course of radiation therapy (RT) in patients with head-and-neck cancer.

Methods

Twenty patients with advanced oral squamous cell carcinomas, who were treated with preoperative chemo-RT, underwent morphological assessment with CT or MRI and functional assessment with the Saxon test. For the Saxon test, saliva production was measured by weighing a gauze pad before and 2 min after chewing without swallowing; the low-normal value is 2 g. Saliva production and parotid volumes before and 2 weeks after RT were compared with the paired t-test, the Spearman rank correlation test and the Fisher exact test.

Results

After 30 Gy irradiation, mean saliva production was decreased from 4.2 to 1.0 g (P < 0.01); the reduction in saliva production ranged from 1.7 to 5.4 g (mean 3.2 g). The mean parotid volume was decreased from 68.2 to 47.9 cm3 (P < 0.01); the post-RT:pre-RT parotid volume ratio ranged from 54% to 85% (mean 71%). Although the initial parotid `volume was correlated with initial saliva production (r = 0.47, P = 0.04), no significant correlation was noted after RT (r = 0.08, P = 0.71), and there were considerable individual variations. The parotid volume ratio was inversely correlated with the saliva-reduction amount (r = – 0.79, P < 0.01).

Conclusions

There was a correlation between decreased parotid gland volume and decreased saliva production in patients with head-and-neck cancer undergoing RT. Parotid volume reduction may predict parotid gland function.

  Y Mukai , T Nakamura , Y Yoshioka , H Shibata , Y Abe , T Nomura , M Taniai , T Ohta , S Nakagawa , S. i Tsunoda , H Kamada , Y Yamagata and Y. Tsutsumi
 

Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is an important cytokine that induces an inflammatory response predominantly through the TNF receptor-1 (TNFR1). A crucial strategy for the treatment of many autoimmune diseases, therefore, is to block the binding of TNF to TNFR1. We previously identified a TNFR1-selective antagonistic mutant TNF (R1antTNF) from a phage library containing six randomized amino acid residues at the receptor-binding site (amino acids 84–89). Two R1antTNFs, R1antTNF-T2 (A84S, V85T, S86T, Y87H, Q88N and T89Q) and R1antTNF-T8 (A84T, V85P, S86A, Y87I, Q88N and T89R), were successfully isolated from this library. Here, we analysed R1antTNF-T8 using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography to determine the mechanism underlying the antagonistic activity of R1antTNF. The kinetic association/dissociation parameters of R1antTNF-T8 were higher than those of wild-type TNF, indicating more rapid bond dissociation. X-ray crystallographic analysis suggested that the binding mode of the T89R mutation changed from a hydrophobic to an electrostatic interaction, which may be responsible for the antagonistic behaviour of R1antTNF. Knowledge of these structure–function relationships will facilitate the design of novel TNF inhibitors based on the cytokine structure.

  B Corry , A. C Hurst , P Pal , T Nomura , P Rigby and B. Martinac
 

Mechanosensitive channels act as molecular transducers of mechanical force exerted on the membrane of living cells by opening in response to membrane bilayer deformations occurring in physiological processes such as touch, hearing, blood pressure regulation, and osmoregulation. Here, we determine the likely structure of the open state of the mechanosensitive channel of large conductance using a combination of patch clamp, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) spectroscopy, data from previous electron paramagnetic resonance experiments, and molecular and Brownian dynamics simulations. We show that structural rearrangements of the protein can be measured in similar conditions as patch clamp recordings while controlling the state of the pore in its natural lipid environment by modifying the lateral pressure distribution via the lipid bilayer. Transition to the open state is less dramatic than previously proposed, while the N terminus remains anchored at the surface of the membrane where it can either guide the tilt of or directly translate membrane tension to the conformation of the pore-lining helix. Combining FRET data obtained in physiological conditions with simulations is likely to be of great value for studying conformational changes in a range of multimeric membrane proteins.

 
 
 
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