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Articles by T Nakazawa
Total Records ( 2 ) for T Nakazawa
  J. K Akada , H Aoki , Y Torigoe , T Kitagawa , H Kurazono , H Hoshida , J Nishikawa , S Terai , M Matsuzaki , T Hirayama , T Nakazawa , R Akada and K. Nakamura
  Junko K. Akada, Hiroki Aoki, Yuji Torigoe, Takao Kitagawa, Hisao Kurazono, Hisashi Hoshida, Jun Nishikawa, Shuji Terai, Masunori Matsuzaki, Toshiya Hirayama, Teruko Nakazawa, Rinji Akada, and Kazuyuki Nakamura

Helicobacter pylori, a common pathogen that causes chronic gastritis and cancer, has evolved to establish persistent infections in the human stomach. Epidemiological evidence suggests that H. pylori with both highly active vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA), the major virulence factors, has an advantage in adapting to the host environment. However, the mechanistic relationship between VacA and CagA remains obscure. Here, we report that CagA interferes with eukaryotic endocytosis, as revealed by genome-wide screening in yeast. Moreover, CagA suppresses pinocytic endocytosis and the cytotoxicity of VacA in gastric epithelial cells without affecting clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Our data suggest that H. pylori secretes VacA to attack distant host cells while injecting CagA into the gastric epithelial cells to which the bacteria are directly attached, thereby protecting these attached host cells from the cytotoxicity of VacA and creating a local ecological niche. This mechanism might allow H. pylori to balance damage to one population of host cells with the preservation of another, allowing for persistent infection.

  R Takahashi , S Nakamura , T Nakazawa , K Minoura , T Yoshida , Y Nishi , Y Kobayashi and T. Ohkubo

Nicotinamide (NM) phosphoribosyltransferase (NMPRTase) catalyzes the reaction of NM and 5'-phosphoribosyl-1'-pyrophosphate (PRPP) to form NM mononucleotide (NMN) and pyrophosphate (PPi) in the pathway of NAD-biosynthesis. Monitoring the 1H and 31P NMR spectra of the reaction mixture, we found that this reaction is reversible as dictated by the equilibrium constant K = [NMN][PPi]/([NM][PRPP]) = 0.14, which agreed well with the ratio of second-order rate constants for forward and backward reactions, K = 0.16. The crystal structures of this enzyme in the free form and bound to NM and PRPP at the resolution of 2.0–2.2 Å were essentially identical to that of the complex with NMN, except for some variations that could facilitate the substitution reaction by fixing the nucleophile and the leaving group for the requisite inversion of configuration at the C1’ carbon of the ribose ring. In the active site near the C1’ atom of the bound PRPP or NMN, there was neither negatively charged group nor waterproof environment necessary to support the feasibility of a ribo-oxocarbocation intermediate inherent in the SN1 mechanism. The structures and catalytic mechanism thus revealed are also discussed in connection with the multiple biological functions of NMPRTase.

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