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Articles by T Murakami
Total Records ( 3 ) for T Murakami
  T Murakami , T Obata , K Kuwahara Arai , H Tamura , K Hiramatsu and I. Nagaoka

Endotoxin shock is a severe systemic inflammatory response that is caused by the augmented production and release of septic mediators. Among them, inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-, IL-1β and IL-6 play a pivotal role. In addition, anandamide, an endogenous cannabinoid and high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), a non-histone chromosomal protein has recently been recognized as members of septic mediators. We previously reported that cationic antibacterial polypeptide of 11-kDa (CAP11), an antimicrobial cathelicidin peptide (originally isolated from guinea pig neutrophils), potently neutralizes the biological activity of LPS and protects mice from lethal endotoxin shock. In this study, to clarify the protective mechanism of CAP11 against endotoxin shock, we evaluated the effects of CAP11 on the production and release of septic mediators in vitro and in vivo using a murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 and a D-galactosamine-sensitized murine endotoxin shock model. LPS stimulation induced the production of inflammatory cytokines and anandamide and release of HMGB1 from RAW264.7 cells. Importantly, CAP11 suppressed the LPS-induced production and release of these mediators by RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, LPS administration enhanced the serum levels of HMGB1, anandamide and inflammatory cytokines in the endotoxin shock model. Of note, CAP11 suppressed the LPS-induced increase of these mediators in sera, and LPS binding to CD14-positive cells (peritoneal macrophages), accompanied with the increase of survival rates. Together these observations suggest that the protective action of CAP11 on endotoxin shock may be explained by its suppressive effect on the production and release of septic mediators by CD14-positive cells possibly via the inhibition of LPS binding to the targets.

  A Fukumura , H Tsujii , T Kamada , M Baba , H Tsuji , H Kato , S Kato , S Yamada , S Yasuda , T Yanagi , R Hara , N Yamamoto , J Mizoe , K Akahane , S Fukuda , Y Furusawa , Y Iwata , T Kanai , N Kanematsu , A Kitagawa , N Matsufuji , S Minohara , N Miyahara , H Mizuno , T Murakami , K Nishizawa , K Noda , E Takada and S. Yonai

The features of relativistic carbon-ion beams are attractive from the viewpoint of radiotherapy. They exhibit not only a superior physical dose distribution but also an increase in biological efficiency with depth, because energy loss of the beams increases as they penetrate the body. This paper reviews clinical aspects of carbon-beam radiotherapy using the experience at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The paper also outlines the dosimetry related to carbon-beam radiotherapy, including absolute dosimetry of the carbon beam, neutron measurements and radiation protection measurements.

  T Maeda , Y Takeda , T Murakami , A Yokota and M. Wada

D-threo-3-hydroxyaspartate dehydratase (D-THA DH) was purified from the cell-free extract of the soil-isolated bacterium Delftia sp. HT23. The enzyme exhibited dehydratase activity towards D-threo-3-hydroxyaspartate, l-threo-3-hydroxyaspartate, l-erythro-3-hydroxyaspartate and d-serine. Absorption of the purified enzyme at 412 nm suggests that it contains pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) as a cofactor. The NH2-terminal and internal amino acid sequences showed significant similarity to hypothetical alanine racemase of genome-sequenced Delftia acidovorans SPH-1; however, the purified enzyme showed no alanine racemase activity. Using the sequence information of D. acidovorans SPH-1, the gene encoding d-THA DH was cloned. The deduced amino acid sequence, which belongs to the alanine racemase family, shows significant (26–36%) similarity to d-serine dehydratase of both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and chicken. In order to obtain purified d-THA DH efficiently, the gene was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme was highly activated by divalent cations, such as Mn2+, Co2+ and Ni2+. Site-directed mutagenesis experiment revealed that lysine 43 is an important residue involved in PLP binding and catalysis. This is the first reported enzyme that acts on d-THA. In addition, this enzyme is the first example of a prokaryotic dehydratase belonging to the fold-type III PLP-dependent enzyme family.

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