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Articles by T Maeda
Total Records ( 7 ) for T Maeda
  S Inomata , T Maeda , T Shimizu , T Satsumae and M. Tanaka

Sevoflurane can be used as a sole agent for intubation in children, but studies have suggested that it is associated with emergence agitation. Fentanyl infusions can be used both to facilitate intubation and decrease emergence agitation. We investigated the effects of fentanyl on conditions at intubation and on emergence from sevoflurane anaesthesia without confounding nitrous oxide or premedication.


IRB approval and informed consent were obtained. Subjects comprised 150 ASA physical status I or II (age, 2–6 yr). Anaesthesia was induced with sevoflurane in oxygen and maintained using a predetermined concentration of sevoflurane. Subjects were randomly allocated to receive one of three doses of fentanyl: vehicle only (control group), a bolus dose of 1 µg kg–1 followed by a continuous infusion of 0.5 µg kg–1 h–1 (F1 group), or a bolus dose of 2 µg kg–1 followed by a continuous infusion of 1 µg kg–1 h–1 (F2 group). Sevoflurane minimum alveolar concentration for tracheal intubation (MACTI) and emergence agitation score were assessed.


MACTI values were 2.49%, 1.61%, and 1.16% in control, F1, and F2 groups, respectively (P<0.05). Agitation scores were 11.5, 7.0, and 2.6 in control, F1, and F2 groups, respectively (P<0.05).


Fentanyl infusion consisting of a bolus dose of 2 µg kg–1 followed by a continuous infusion of 1 µg kg–1 h–1 facilitates tracheal intubation and smooth emergence in children anaesthetized using sevoflurane.

Clinical trial registration: this study was started in 2000 and was finished in 2008. We had no registration number. IRB approval was obtained.

  H Hotta , T Miura , T Miki , N Togashi , T Maeda , S. J Kim , M Tanno , T Yano , A Kuno , T Itoh , T Satoh , Y Terashima , S Ishikawa and K. Shimamoto

Rationale: The diabetic heart is resistant to ischemic preconditioning because of diabetes-associated impairment of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling. The mechanism by which PI3K-Akt signaling is impaired by diabetes remains unclear.

Objective: Here, we examined the hypothesis that phosphorylation of Jak2 upstream of PI3K is impaired in diabetic hearts by an angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor–mediated mechanism.

Methods and Results: Infarct size (as percentage of risk area) after 20-minute ischemia/2-hour reperfusion was larger in a rat model of type 2 diabetes (Otsuka–Long–Evans–Tokushima fatty [OLETF] rat) than in its control (Long–Evans–Tokushima–Otsuka [LETO] rat) (60.4±1.6% versus 48.4±1.3%). Activation of Jak2-mediated signaling by erythropoietin or DADLE ([d-Ala2, d-Leu5]-enkephalin acetate), a -opioid receptor agonist, limited infarct size in LETO rats (27.7±3.4% and 24.8±5.0%) but not in OLETF rats (53.9±5.3% and 55.0±2.2%). Blockade of the AT1 receptor by valsartan or losartan for 2 weeks restored the myocardial response of OLETF rats to erythropoietin-induced infarct size limitation (39.4±4.9% and 31.2±7.5). In OLETF rats, erythropoietin failed to phosphorylate both Jak2 and Akt, and calcineurin activity was significantly higher than in LETO rats. Two-week treatment with valsartan normalized calcineurin activity in OLETF rats and restored the response of Jak2 to erythropoietin. This effect of AT1 receptor blockade was mimicked by inhibition of calcineurin by FK506.

Conclusions: These results suggest that the diabetic heart is refractory to protection by Jak2-activating ligands because of AT1 receptor–mediated upregulation of calcineurin activity.

  T Maeda , A. V Cideciyan , A Maeda , M Golczak , T. S Aleman , S. G Jacobson and K. Palczewski

Inactivating mutations in the retinoid isomerase (RPE65) or lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) genes cause Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), a severe visual impairment in humans. Both enzymes participate in the retinoid (visual) cycle, the enzymatic pathway that continuously generates 11-cis-retinal, the chromophore of visual pigments in rod and cone photoreceptor cells needed for vision. We investigated human RPE65–LCA patients and mice with visual cycle abnormalities to determine the impact of chronic chromophore deprivation on cones. Young patients with RPE65 mutations showed foveal cone loss along with shortened inner and outer segments of remaining cones; cone cell loss also was dramatic in young mice lacking Rpe65 or Lrat gene function. To selectively evaluate cone pathophysiology, we eliminated the rod contribution to electroretinographic (ERG) responses by generating double knockout mice lacking Lrat or Rpe65 together with an inactivated rod-specific G protein transducin gene (Gnat1–/–). Cone ERG responses were absent in Gnat1–/–Lrat–/– mice which also showed progressive degeneration of cones. Cone ERG responses in Gnat1–/–Rpe65–/– mice were markedly reduced and declined over weeks. Treatment of these mice with the artificial chromophore pro-drug, 9-cis-retinyl acetate, partially protected inferior retinal cones as evidenced by improved ERGs and retinal histochemistry. Gnat1–/– mice chronically treated with retinylamine, a selective inhibitor of RPE65, also showed a decline in the number of cones that was ameliorated by 9-cis-retinyl acetate. These results suggest that chronic lack of chromophore leads to progressive loss of cones in mice and humans. Therapy for LCA patients should be geared toward early adequate delivery of chromophore to cone photoreceptors.

  S Ubaidus , M Li , S Sultana , P. H. L de Freitas , K Oda , T Maeda , R Takagi and N. Amizuka

This study aimed to evaluate whether the immunolocalization of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 and dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is associated with the spatial regularity of the osteocyte lacunar canalicular system(s) (OLCS). Femora of 12-weeks-old male ICR mice were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde, decalcified with a 10% EDTA solution and then embedded in paraffin. We have devised a triple staining procedure that combines silver impregnation, alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) immunohistochemistry and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAPase) enzyme histochemistry on a single paraffin section. This procedure permitted the visualization of ALPase-positive plump osteoblasts and several TRAPase-positive osteoclasts on those bone matrices featuring irregularly arranged OLCS, and of ALPase-positive bone lining cells on the bone matrix displaying the well-arranged OLCS. As observations proceeded from the metaphysis toward the diaphysis, the endosteal cortical bone displayed narrower bands of calcein labeling, accompanied by increased regularity of the OLCS. This implies that the speed of bone deposition during bone remodeling would affect the regularity of the OLCS. While DMP1 was evenly localized in all regions of the cortical bones, FGF23 was more abundantly localized in osteocytes of cortical bones with regularly arranged OLCS. In cortical bones, the endosteal area featuring regular OLCS exhibited more intense FGF23 immunoreaction when compared to the periosteal region, which tended to display irregular OLCS. In summary, FGF23 appears to be synthesized principally by osteocytes in the regularly distributed OLCS that have been established after bone remodeling.

  M Li , Y Seki , P. H. L Freitas , M Nagata , T Kojima , S Sultana , S Ubaidus , T Maeda , J Shimomura , J. E Henderson , M Tamura , K Oda , Z Liu , Y Guo , R Suzuki , T Yamamoto , R Takagi and N. Amizuka

The signaling axis comprising the parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related peptide (PTHrP), the PTH/PTHrP receptor and the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) plays a central role in chondrocyte proliferation. The Indian hedgehog (IHH) gene is normally expressed in early hypertrophic chondrocytes, and its negative feedback loop was shown to regulate PTH/PTHrP receptor signaling. In this study, we examined the regulation of PTH/PTHrP receptor gene expression in a FGFR3-transfected chondrocytic cell line, CFK2. Expression of IHH could not be verified on these cells, with consequent absence of hypertrophic differentiation. Also, expression of the PTH/PTHrP receptor (75% reduction of total mRNA) and the PTHrP (50% reduction) genes was reduced in CFK2 cells transfected with FGFR3 cDNA. Interestingly, we verified significant reduction in cell growth and increased apoptosis in the transfected cells. STAT1 was detected in the nuclei of the CFK2 cells transfected with FGFR3 cDNA, indicating predominance of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. The reduction in PTH/PTHrP receptor gene in CFK2 cells overexpressing FGFR3 was partially blocked by treatment with an inhibitor of JAK3 (WHI-P131), but not with an inhibitor of MAPK (SB203580) or JAK2 (AG490). Altogether, these findings suggest that FGFR3 down-regulates PTH/PTHrP receptor gene expression via the JAK/STAT signaling in chondrocytic cells.

  T Maeda and N. Horiuchi

Simvastatin inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, which catalyses conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, a rate-limiting step in cholesterol synthesis. We demonstrated that simvastatin at 1 µM markedly inhibited adipocyte differentiation measured by Oil Red O staining in preadipocyte cells (3T3-L1), while expression of leptin, a marker of adipocyte differentiation, was suppressed by 1 µM simvastatin for up to 12 days of culture. Next, to elucidate mechanisms underlying the reduction of leptin expression induced by simvastatin, differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with various inhibitors with mevalonate or its metabolite in the presence or absence of simvastatin. Simvastatin time- and dose-dependently suppressed leptin mRNA expression. Heterogeneous nuclear RNA related to leptin mRNA was inhibited by 10 µM simvastatin, while stability of the mRNA was not changed by treatment with simvastatin in transcription-arrested 3T3-L1 cells. Simvastatin inhibition of leptin gene transcription was not abrogated by pre-treatment with cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis. Addition of mevalonate or geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), a mevalonate metabolite, abolished simvastatin-induced inhibition of leptin expression in 3T3-L1 cells. Suppression of expression was observed upon addition of GGTI-298, a geranylgeranyl transferase I inhibitor, but not FTI-277, a farnesyl transferase inhibitor. Expression was suppressed by treatment with hydroxyfasudil, a protein prenylation inhibitor. Treatment with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors, LY294002 and wortmannin, reduced leptin expression in 3T3-L1 cells. Simvastatin dose-dependently increased intra-cellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) concentrations in 3T3-L1 cells, with maximal stimulation obtained at 10 µM. Addition of GGPP abolished simvastatin-induced stimulation of cAMP accumulation and protein kinase A (PKA) activity. H89, an inhibitor of PKA, completely abolished simvastatin-induced suppression of leptin expression. These results suggested that simvastatin reduced geranylgeranylprotein prenylation followed by deactivation of PI3K, leading to cAMP accumulation and subsequent activation of PKA in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Finally, PKA inhibited leptin gene transcription without new protein synthesis.

  T Maeda , Y Takeda , T Murakami , A Yokota and M. Wada

D-threo-3-hydroxyaspartate dehydratase (D-THA DH) was purified from the cell-free extract of the soil-isolated bacterium Delftia sp. HT23. The enzyme exhibited dehydratase activity towards D-threo-3-hydroxyaspartate, l-threo-3-hydroxyaspartate, l-erythro-3-hydroxyaspartate and d-serine. Absorption of the purified enzyme at 412 nm suggests that it contains pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) as a cofactor. The NH2-terminal and internal amino acid sequences showed significant similarity to hypothetical alanine racemase of genome-sequenced Delftia acidovorans SPH-1; however, the purified enzyme showed no alanine racemase activity. Using the sequence information of D. acidovorans SPH-1, the gene encoding d-THA DH was cloned. The deduced amino acid sequence, which belongs to the alanine racemase family, shows significant (26–36%) similarity to d-serine dehydratase of both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and chicken. In order to obtain purified d-THA DH efficiently, the gene was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme was highly activated by divalent cations, such as Mn2+, Co2+ and Ni2+. Site-directed mutagenesis experiment revealed that lysine 43 is an important residue involved in PLP binding and catalysis. This is the first reported enzyme that acts on d-THA. In addition, this enzyme is the first example of a prokaryotic dehydratase belonging to the fold-type III PLP-dependent enzyme family.

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