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Articles by T Li
Total Records ( 6 ) for T Li
  C Sun , M Xu , Z Xing , Z Wu , Y Li , T Li and M. Zhao

Lissencephaly is a severe disease characterized by brain malformation. The main causative gene of lissencephaly is LIS1. Mutation or deletion of LIS1 leads to proliferation and migration deficiency of neurons in brain development. However, little is known about its biological function in embryonic development. In this article, we identified the expression patterns of zebrafish LIS1 gene and investigated its function in embryonic development. We demonstrated that zebrafish consisted of two LIS1 genes, LIS1a and LIS1b. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that LIS1 genes were conserved in evolution both in protein sequences and genomic structures. The expression patterns of zebrafish LIS1a and LIS1b showed that both transcripts were ubiquitously expressed at all embryonic developmental stages and in adult tissues examined. At the protein level, the LIS1 products mainly exist in brain tissue and in embryos at early stages as shown by western blotting analysis. The whole-mount immunostaining data showed that LIS1 proteins were distributed all over the embryos from 1-cell stage to 5 day post-fertilization. Knockdown of LIS1 protein expression through morpholino antisense oligonucleotides resulted in many developmental deficiencies in zebrafish, including brain malformation, circulation abnormality, and body curl. Taken together, our study suggested that zebrafish LIS1 plays a very important role in embryonic development.

  Y Wang , J Li , Y Cui , T Li , K. M Ng , H Geng , H Li , X. s Shu , W Liu , B Luo , Q Zhang , T. S. K Mok , W Zheng , X Qiu , G Srivastava , J Yu , J. J.Y Sung , A. T.C Chan , D Ma , Q Tao and W. Han

Closely located at the tumor suppressor locus 16q22.1, CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing member 3 and 4 (CMTM3 and CMTM4) encode two CMTM family proteins, which link chemokines and the transmembrane-4 superfamily. In contrast to the broad expression of both CMTM3 and CMTM4 in normal human adult tissues, only CMTM3 is silenced or down-regulated in common carcinoma (gastric, breast, nasopharyngeal, esophageal, and colon) cell lines and primary tumors. CMTM3 methylation was not detected in normal epithelial cell lines and tissues, with weak methylation present in only 5 of 35 (14%) gastric cancer adjacent normal tissues. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry showed that CMTM3 protein was absent in 12 of 35 (34%) gastric and 1 of 2 colorectal tumors, which was well correlated with its methylation status. The silencing of CMTM3 is due to aberrant promoter CpG methylation that could be reversed by pharmacologic demethylation. Ectopic expression of CMTM3 strongly suppressed the colony formation of carcinoma cell lines. In addition, CMTM3 inhibited tumor cell growth and induced apoptosis with caspase-3 activation. Thus, CMTM3 exerts tumor-suppressive functions in tumor cells, with frequent epigenetic inactivation by promoter CpG methylation in common carcinomas. [Cancer Res 2009;69(12):5194–201]

  M. H Tan , A. J Smith , B Pawlyk , X Xu , X Liu , J. B Bainbridge , M Basche , J McIntosh , H. V Tran , A Nathwani , T Li and R. R. Ali

Defects in the photoreceptor-specific gene encoding aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein-like 1 (AIPL1) are clinically heterogeneous and present as Leber Congenital Amaurosis, the severest form of early-onset retinal dystrophy and milder forms of retinal dystrophies such as juvenile retinitis pigmentosa and dominant cone-rod dystrophy. [Perrault, I., Rozet, J.M., Gerber, S., Ghazi, I., Leowski, C., Ducroq, D., Souied, E., Dufier, J.L., Munnich, A. and Kaplan, J. (1999) Leber congenital amaurosis. Mol. Genet. Metab., 68, 200–208.] Although not yet fully elucidated, AIPL1 is likely to function as a specialized chaperone for rod phosphodiesterase (PDE). We evaluate whether AAV-mediated gene replacement therapy is able to improve photoreceptor function and survival in retinal degeneration associated with AIPL1 defects. We used two mouse models of AIPL1 deficiency simulating three different rates of photoreceptor degeneration. The Aipl1 hypomorphic (h/h) mouse has reduced Aipl1 levels and a relatively slow degeneration. Under light acceleration, the rate of degeneration in the Aipl1 h/h mouse is increased by 2–3-fold. The Aipl1–/– mouse has no functional Aipl1 and has a very rapid retinal degeneration. To treat the different rates of degeneration, two pseudotypes of recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) exhibiting different transduction kinetics are used for gene transfer. We demonstrate restoration of cellular function and preservation of photoreceptor cells and retinal function in Aipl1 h/h mice following gene replacement therapy using an AAV2/2 vector and in the light accelerated Aipl1 h/h model and Aipl1–/– mice using an AAV2/8 vector. We have thus established the potential of gene replacement therapy in varying rates of degeneration that reflect the clinical spectrum of disease. This is the first gene replacement study to report long-term rescue of a photoreceptor-specific defect and to demonstrate effective rescue of a rapid photoreceptor degeneration.

  T Li , Y Yang and C. M. Canessa

Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-activated sodium channels of the nervous system. Mammals express four ASICs, and orthologs of these genes have been found in all chordates examined to date. Despite a high degree of sequence conservation of all ASICs across species, the response to a given increase in external proton concentration varies markedly: from large and slowly inactivating inward currents to no detectable currents. The underlying bases of this functional variability and whether it stems from differences in proton-binding sites or in structures that translate conformational changes have not been determined yet. We show here that the ASIC1 ortholog of an early vertebrate, lamprey ASIC1, does not respond to protons; however, only two amino acid substitutions for the corresponding ones in rat ASIC1, Q77L and T85L, convert lamprey ASIC1 into a highly sensitive proton-activated channel with apparent H+ affinity of pH50 7.2. Addition of C73H increases the magnitude of the currents by fivefold, and W64R confers desensitization similar to that of the mammalian counterpart. Most amino acid substitutions in these four positions increase the rates of opening and closing the pore, whereas only few, namely, the ones in rat ASIC1, slow the rates. The four residues are located in a contiguous segment made by the β1-β2-linker, β1-strand, and the external segment of the first transmembrane helix. We conclude that the segment thus defined modulates the kinetics of opening and closing the pore and that fast kinetics of desensitization rather than lack of acid sensor accounts for the absence of proton-induced currents in the parent lamprey ASIC1.

  R Pardossi Piquard , S. P Yang , S Kanemoto , Y Gu , F Chen , C Bohm , J Sevalle , T Li , P. C Wong , F Checler , G Schmitt Ulms , P St. George Hyslop and P. E. Fraser

Complexes involved in the /-secretase-regulated intramembranous proteolysis of substrates such as the amyloid-β precursor protein are composed primarily of presenilin (PS1 or PS2), nicastrin, anterior pharynx defective-1 (APH1), and PEN2. The presenilin aspartyl residues form the catalytic site, and similar potentially functional polar transmembrane residues in APH1 have been identified. Substitution of charged (E84A, R87A) or polar (Q83A) residues in TM3 had no effect on complex assembly or activity. In contrast, changes to either of two highly conserved histidines (H171A, H197A) located in TM5 and TM6 negatively affected PS1 cleavage and altered binding to other secretase components, resulting in decreased amyloid generating activity. Charge replacement with His-to-Lys substitutions rescued nicastrin maturation and PS1 endoproteolysis leading to assembly of the formation of structurally normal but proteolytically inactive -secretase complexes. Substitution with a negatively charged side chain (His-to-Asp) or altering the structural location of the histidines also disrupted -secretase binding and abolished functionality of APH1. These results suggest that the conserved transmembrane histidine residues contribute to APH1 function and can affect presenilin catalytic activity.

  T Li and J. S. Woods

Coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPOX) catalyzes the two-step decarboxylation of coproporphyrinogen-III to protoporphyrinogen-IX in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Previously we described a specific polymorphism (A814C) in exon 4 of the human CPOX gene (CPOX4) and demonstrated that CPOX4 is associated with both modified urinary porphyrin excretion and increased neurobehavioral deficits among human subjects with low-level mercury (Hg) exposure. Here, we sought to characterize the gene products of CPOX and CPOX4 with respect to biochemical and kinetic properties. Coproporphyrinogen-III was incubated with recombinantly expressed and purified human CPOX and CPOX4 enzymes at various substrate concentrations, with or without Hg2+ present. Both CPOX and CPOX4 formed protoporphyrinogen-IX from coproporphyrinogen-III; however, the affinity of CPOX4 was twofold lower than that of CPOX (CPOX Km = 0.30µM, Vmax = 0.52 pmol protoporphyrin-IX; CPOX4 Km = 0.54µM, Vmax = 0.33 pmol protoporphyrin-IX). Hg2+ specifically inhibited the second step of coproporphyrinogen-III decarboxylation (harderoporphyrinogen to protoporphyrinogen-IX) in a dose dependent manner. We also compared the catalytic activities of CPOX and CPOX4 in human liver samples. The specific activities of CPOX in mutant livers were significantly lower (40–50%) than those of either wild-type or heterozygous. Additionally, enzymes from mutant, heterozygous and wild-type livers were comparably inhibited by Hg2+ (10µM), decreasing CPOX4 activity to 25% that of the wild-type enzyme. These findings suggest that CPOX4 may predispose to impaired heme biosynthesis, which is limited further by Hg exposure. These effects may underlie increased susceptibility to neurological deficits previously observed in Hg-exposed humans with CPOX4.

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