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Articles by T Lammermann
Total Records ( 2 ) for T Lammermann
  T Lammermann , J Renkawitz , X Wu , K Hirsch , C Brakebusch and M. Sixt

Mature dendritic cells (DCs) moving from the skin to the lymph node are a prototypic example of rapidly migrating amoeboid leukocytes. Interstitial DC migration is directionally guided by chemokines, but independent of specific adhesive interactions with the tissue as well as pericellular proteolysis. Instead, the protrusive flow of the actin cytoskeleton directly drives a basal mode of locomotion that is occasionally supported by actomyosin contractions at the trailing edge to propel the cell's rigid nucleus. We here delete the small GTPase Cdc42 in DCs and find that actin flow and actomyosin contraction are still initiated in response to chemotactic cues. Accordingly, the cells are able to polarize and form protrusions. However, in the absence of Cdc42 the protrusions are temporally and spatially dysregulated, which leads to impaired leading edge coordination. Although this defect still allows the cells to move on 2-dimensional surfaces, their in vivo motility is completely abrogated. We show that this difference is entirely caused by the geometric complexity of the environment, as multiple competing protrusions lead to instantaneous entanglement within 3-dimensional extracellular matrix scaffolds. This demonstrates that the decisive factor for migrating DCs is not specific interaction with the extracellular environment, but adequate coordination of cytoskeletal flow.

  T Quast , B Tappertzhofen , C Schild , J Grell , N Czeloth , R Forster , R Alon , L Fraemohs , K Dreck , C Weber , T Lammermann , M Sixt and W. Kolanus

Adhesion and motility of mammalian leukocytes are essential requirements for innate and adaptive immune defense mechanisms. We show here that the guanine nucleotide exchange factor cytohesin-1, which had previously been demonstrated to be an important component of beta-2 integrin activation in lymphocytes, regulates the activation of the small GTPase RhoA in primary dendritic cells (DCs). Cytohesin-1 and RhoA are both required for the induction of chemokine-dependent conformational changes of the integrin beta-2 subunit of DCs during adhesion under physiological flow conditions. Furthermore, use of RNAi in murine bone marrow DCs (BM-DCs) revealed that interference with cytohesin-1 signaling impairs migration of wild-type dendritic cells in complex 3D environments and in vivo. This phenotype was not observed in the complete absence of integrins. We thus demonstrate an essential role of cytohesin-1/RhoA during ameboid migration in the presence of integrins and further suggest that DCs without integrins switch to a different migration mode.

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