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Articles by T Kurth
Total Records ( 5 ) for T Kurth
  W. G Christen , R. J Glynn , H. D Sesso , T Kurth , J MacFadyen , V Bubes , J. E Buring , J. E Manson and J. M. Gaziano
 

Objective  To test whether supplementation with alternate-day vitamin E or daily vitamin C affects the incidence of age-related cataract in a large cohort of men.

Methods  In a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial, 11 545 apparently healthy US male physicians 50 years or older without a diagnosis of cataract at baseline were randomly assigned to receive 400 IU of vitamin E or placebo on alternate days and 500 mg of vitamin C or placebo daily.

Main Outcome Measure  Incident cataract responsible for a reduction in best-corrected visual acuity to 20/30 or worse based on self-report confirmed by medical record review.

Application to Clinical Practice  Long-term use of vitamin E and C supplements has no appreciable effect on cataract.

Results  After 8 years of treatment and follow-up, 1174 incident cataracts were confirmed. There were 579 cataracts in the vitamin E–treated group and 595 in the vitamin E placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-1.11). For vitamin C, there were 593 cataracts in the treated group and 581 in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-1.14).

Conclusion  Long-term alternate-day use of 400 IU of vitamin E and daily use of 500 mg of vitamin C had no notable beneficial or harmful effect on the risk of cataract.

Trial Registration  clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00270647

  K. L Penney , F. R Schumacher , H Li , P Kraft , J. S Morris , T Kurth , L. A Mucci , D. J Hunter , P. W Kantoff , M. J Stampfer and J. Ma
 

The role of selenium in prostate cancer (PCa) risk remains controversial, but many epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse association with more aggressive disease. A recently discovered selenoprotein, SEP15, which is highly expressed in the prostate, may play a role either independently or by modifying the effects of selenium. We genotyped four common single-nucleotide polymorphisms capturing common variation (frequency >5%; R2 > 0.8) within SEP15, as well as rs5859 in the 3' untranslated region, previously reported to reduce the efficiency of selenium incorporation into SEP15. We examined the association of these single-nucleotide polymorphisms with PCa risk and PCa-specific mortality, as well as their interactions with plasma selenium levels, in the Physicians' Health Study. In this nested case-control study (1,286 cases and 1,267 controls), SEP15 polymorphisms were not significantly associated with PCa risk. However, among the cases, three variants were significantly associated with PCa-specific mortality [rs479341 hazard ratio (HR), 1.94; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.15-3.25; rs1407131 HR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.45-5.59; rs561104 HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.12-2.11] with a recessive model. Additionally, rs561104 significantly modified the association of plasma selenium with PCa survival (Pinteraction = 0.02); an inverse relationship of high levels of selenium with PCa mortality was apparent only among those without the increased risk genotype. This study provides evidence that SEP15 genetic variation may influence PCa mortality. Additionally, the association of selenium with PCa mortality was modified by a variant, suggesting the possibility that some men with PCa may benefit more from selenium than others, depending on their genotype. Cancer Prev Res; 3(5); 604–10. ©2010 AACR.

  H Li , M. J Stampfer , L Mucci , N Rifai , W Qiu , T Kurth and J. Ma
 

Background: Adipocytokines may mediate the association between adiposity and lethal prostate cancer outcomes.

Methods: In the Physicians’ Health Study, we prospectively examined the association of prediagnostic plasma concentrations of adiponectin and leptin with risk of developing incident prostate cancer (654 cases diagnosed 1982–2000 and 644 age-matched controls) and, among cases, risk of dying from prostate cancer by 2007.

Results: Adiponectin concentrations were not associated with risk of overall prostate cancer. However, men with higher adiponectin concentrations had lower risk of developing high-grade or lethal cancer (metastatic or fatal disease). The relative risk (95% CI) comparing the highest quintile to the lowest (Q5 vs Q1) was 0.25 (95% CI 0.07–0.87; Ptrend = 0.02) for lethal cancer. Among all the cases, higher adiponectin concentrations predicted lower prostate cancer–specific mortality [hazard ratio (HR)Q5 vs Q1= 0.39; 95% CI 0.17–0.85; Ptrend = 0.02], independent of body mass index (BMI), plasma C-peptide (a marker of insulin secretion), leptin, clinical stage, and tumor grade. This inverse association was apparent mainly among men with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (HRQ5 vs Q1= 0.10; 95% CI 0.01–0.78; Ptrend = 0.02), but not among men of normal weight (Ptrend = 0.51). Although the correlation of leptin concentrations with BMI (r = 0.58, P < 0.001) was stronger than that of adiponectin (r = –0.17, P < 0.001), leptin was unrelated to prostate cancer risk or mortality.

Conclusions: Higher prediagnostic adiponectin (but not leptin) concentrations predispose men to a lower risk of developing high-grade prostate cancer and a lower risk of subsequently dying from the cancer, suggesting a mechanistic link between obesity and poor prostate cancer outcome.

  J. R Stark , G Judson , J. F Alderete , V Mundodi , A. S Kucknoor , E. L Giovannucci , E. A Platz , S Sutcliffe , K Fall , T Kurth , J Ma , M. J Stampfer and L. A. Mucci
  Background

A recent nested case–control study found that the presence of antibodies against Trichomonas vaginalis, a common nonviral sexually transmitted infection, was positively associated with subsequent incidence of prostate cancer. We confirmed these findings in an independent population and related serostatus for antibodies against T vaginalis to prostate cancer incidence and mortality.

Methods

We conducted a case–control study nested within the Physicians’ Health Study that included 673 case subjects with prostate cancer and 673 individually matched control subjects who had available plasma samples. Plasma from blood samples collected at baseline was assayed for antibodies against T vaginalis with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) of incident prostate cancer, extraprostatic prostate cancer, and cancer that would ultimately progress to bony metastases or prostate cancer–specific death.

Results

Although not statistically significant, the magnitude of the association between T vaginalis–seropositive status and overall prostate cancer risk (OR = 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.94 to 1.61) was similar to that reported previously. Furthermore, a seropositive status was associated with statistically significantly increased risks of extraprostatic prostate cancer (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.08 to 4.37) and of cancer that would ultimately progress to bony metastases or prostate cancer–specific death (OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.37 to 5.28).

Conclusions

This large prospective case–control study obtained further support for an association between a seropositive status for antibodies against T vaginalis and the risk of prostate cancer, with statistically significant associations identified for the risk of extraprostatic prostate cancer and for clinically relevant, potentially lethal prostate cancer.

  L Lu , P Li , C Yang , T Kurth , M Misale , M Skelton , C Moreno , R. J Roman , A. S Greene , H. J Jacob , J Lazar , M Liang and A. W. Cowley
 

Chromosome 13 consomic and congenic rat strains were analyzed to investigate the pattern of genomic pathway utilization involved in protection against salt-sensitive hypertension and renal injury. Introgression of the entire Brown-Norway chromosome 13 (consomic SS-13BN) or nonoverlapping segments of this chromosome (congenic strains, 16 Mbp in D13Rat151–D13Rat197 or 14 Mbp in D13Rat111–D13Got22) into the genome of the Dahl salt-sensitive rat attenuated salt-induced hypertension and proteinuria. mRNA abundance profiles in the renal cortex and the renal medulla from rats receiving 0.4% or 8% NaCl diets revealed two important features of pathway recruitment in these rat strains. First, the two congenic strains shared alterations in several pathways compared with Dahl salt-sensitive rats, despite the fact that the genomic segments introgressed in the two congenic strains did not overlap. Second, even though the genomic segment introgressed in each congenic strain was a part of the chromosome introgressed in the consomic strain, pathways altered in each congenic strain were not simply a subset of those altered in the consomic. Supporting the relevance of the mRNA data, differential expression of oxidative stress-related genes among the four strains of rats was associated with differences in urinary excretion of lipid peroxidation products. The findings suggest that different genetic alterations might converge to influence shared pathways in protection from hypertension, and that, depending on the genomic context, the same genetic alteration might diverge to affect different pathways.

 
 
 
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