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Articles by T Kawakami
Total Records ( 2 ) for T Kawakami
  T Mogi , T Kawakami , H Arai , Y Igarashi , K Matsushita , M Mori , K Shiomi , S Omura , S Harada and K. Kita

To identify antibiotics targeting to respiratory enzymes, we carried out matrix screening of a structurally varied natural compound library with Pseudomonas aeruginosa membrane-bound respiratory enzymes. We identified a succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor, siccanin (IC50, 0.9 µM), which is a potent antibiotic against some pathogenic fungi like Trichophyton mentagrophytes and inhibits their mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase. We found that siccanin was effective against enzymes from P. aeruginosa, P. putida, rat and mouse mitochondria but ineffective or less effective against Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and porcine mitochondria enzyme. Action mode was mixed-type for quinone-dependent activity and noncompetitive for succinate-dependent activity, indicating the proximity of the inhibitor-binding site to the quinone-binding site. Species-selective inhibition by siccanin is unique among succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors, and thus siccanin is a potential lead compound for new chemotherapeutics.

  T Morisugi , Y Tanaka , T Kawakami and T. Kirita

Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) show complex symptoms associated with inflammation, pain and degeneration of the peripheral tissues including synovium. Although it is believed that excessive mechanical stress on synovium causes development of TMD, the molecular mechanism by which mechanical stress triggers TMD has still remained unclear. In order to examine the effect of mechanical stress on synoviocytes, rabbit synovial cells were cyclically stretched in vitro. The stretch efficiently increased the gene expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NF-B responsive reporter gene constructs. The interruption of NF-B activating pathway by inhibitors resulted in the abrogation of those expressions, indicating the pivotal role of NF-B in the mechanical stretch-mediated COX-2 and iNOS expressions. In parallel, the stretch remarkably increased NO production and poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) synthesis, suggesting that excessive amounts of NO causes DNA injury and in turn activates PAR synthesis by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). The inhibition of PAR synthesis by a PARP inhibitor or a radical scavenger enhanced the mechanical stretch-induced gene expressions in a NF-B-independent manner, implying an involvement of PARP in the gene expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that mechanical stress on synovial cells not only induces gene expressions of COX-2 and iNOS but also affects PAR synthesis.

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