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Articles by T Kato
Total Records ( 6 ) for T Kato
  T Kato
  Objective:

To investigate whether childhood sports participation, particularly weight-bearing sports, has any effect on bone mineral content (BMC), areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone geometric characteristics in middle-aged postmenopausal women.

Design/setting:

In this cross-sectional comparison of two groups, 46 middle-aged women (mean age, 60.2 (SD 5.6) years; range, 52–73 years) were grouped according to sport participation during growth: weight-bearing sports, including high-impact weight-bearing activities; and low-impact non-weight-bearing sports or no participation.

Main outcome measures:

Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-measured BMC, aBMD in the lumbar spine and femur. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) determined bone geometric characteristics in the femur, such as femoral mid-diaphyseal cross-sectional area, periosteal and endosteal perimeters and maximum and minimum second moment of area.

Results:

Postmenopausal middle-aged women with participation in weight-bearing sports during junior high to high school (12–18 years old) displayed significantly greater BMC in both lumbar spine and femoral neck regions, and also significantly greater femoral mid-diaphyseal bone cross-sectional area, periosteal perimeter and maximum and minimum second moment of area than the non-weight-bearing sports group.

Conclusions:

Adolescent weight-bearing exercise exerts preservational effects on femoral mid-diaphyseal size and shape, while DXA-measured BMC effectively identified the same tendency. Weight-bearing exercise in youth affects bone, and these effects may be preserved as BMC, geometric and structural advantages even after 40 years.

  Y Inuzuka , J Okuda , T Kawashima , T Kato , S Niizuma , Y Tamaki , Y Iwanaga , Y Yoshida , R Kosugi , K Watanabe Maeda , Y Machida , S Tsuji , H Aburatani , T Izumi , T Kita and T. Shioi
 

Background— Heart failure is a typical age-associated disease. Although age-related changes of heart are likely to predispose aged people to heart failure, little is known about the molecular mechanism of cardiac aging.

Methods and Results— We analyzed age-associated changes in murine heart and the manner in which suppression of the p110 isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity modified cardiac aging. Cardiac function declined in old mice associated with the expression of senescence markers. Accumulation of ubiquitinated protein and lipofuscin, as well as comprehensive gene expression profiling, indicated that dysregulation of protein quality control was a characteristic of cardiac aging. Inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase preserved cardiac function and attenuated expression of the senescence markers associated with enhanced autophagy. Suppression of target of rapamycin, a downstream effector of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, also prevented lipofuscin accumulation in the heart.

Conclusions— Suppression of phosphoinositide 3-kinase prevented many age-associated changes in the heart and preserved cardiac function of aged mice.

  T Kato , S Niizuma , Y Inuzuka , T Kawashima , J Okuda , Y Tamaki , Y Iwanaga , M Narazaki , T Matsuda , T Soga , T Kita , T Kimura and T. Shioi
  Background—

Congestive heart failure (CHF) is associated with a change in cardiac energy metabolism. However, the mechanism by which this change is induced and causes the progression of CHF is unclear.

Methods and Results—

We analyzed the cardiac energy metabolism of Dahl salt-sensitive rats fed a high-salt diet, which showed a distinct transition from compensated left ventricular hypertrophy to CHF. Glucose uptake increased at the left ventricular hypertrophy stage, and glucose uptake further increased and fatty acid uptake decreased at the CHF stage. The gene expression related to glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and mitochondrial function was preserved at the left ventricular hypertrophy stage but decreased at the CHF stage and was associated with decreases in levels of transcriptional regulators. In a comprehensive metabolome analysis, the pentose phosphate pathway that regulates the cellular redox state was found to be activated at the CHF stage. Dichloroacetate (DCA), a compound known to enhance glucose oxidation, increased energy reserves and glucose uptake. DCA improved cardiac function and the survival of the animals. DCA activated the pentose phosphate pathway in the rat heart. DCA activated the pentose phosphate pathway, decreased oxidative stress, and prevented cell death of cultured cardiomyocytes.

Conclusions—

Left ventricular hypertrophy or CHF is associated with a distinct change in the metabolic profile of the heart. DCA attenuated the transition associated with increased energy reserves, activation of the pentose phosphate pathway, and reduced oxidative stress.

  Y Mori , T Kodaka , T Kato , E. M Kanagawa and O. Kanagawa
 

IFN- signaling-deficient non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice develop diabetes with similar kinetics to those of wild-type NOD mice. However, the immunization of IFN- signaling-deficient NOD mice with CFA failed to induce long-term protection, whereas wild-type NOD mice receiving CFA remained diabetes-free. CFA also failed to protect IFN- receptor-deficient (IFN-R–/–) NOD mice from the autoimmune rejection of transplanted islets, as it does in diabetic NOD mice, and from disease transfer by spleen cells from diabetic NOD mice. These data clearly show that the pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN- is necessary for the CFA-mediated protection of NOD mice from diabetes. There is no difference in the Th1/Th17 balance between IFN-R–/– NOD and wild-type NOD mice. There is also no difference in the total numbers and percentages of regulatory T (Treg) cells in the lymph node CD4+ T-cell populations between IFN-R–/– NOD and wild-type NOD mice. However, pathogenic T cells lacking IFN-R are resistant to the suppressive effect of Treg cells, both in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, it is likely that CFA-mediated protection against diabetes development depends on a change in the balance between Treg cells and pathogenic T cells, and IFN- signaling seems to control the susceptibility of pathogenic T cells to the inhibitory activity of Treg cells.

  Y Kanemitsu , T Kato , Y Shimizu , Y Inaba , Y Shimada , K Nakamura , A Sato , Y Moriya and for the Colorectal Cancer Study Group (CCSG) of Japan Clinical Oncology Group
 

A randomized controlled trial is being conducted in Japan to compare hepatectomy alone with hepatectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy as treatment in patients with curatively resected liver metastases from colorectal cancer to improve survival with intensive chemotherapy. Between 42 and 70 days after liver resection, patients are randomly assigned to either hepatectomy alone or hepatectomy followed by 12 cycles of modified FOLFOX6 (mFOLFOX6) regimen. A total of 300 patients (including 78 patients in Phase II) will be accrued from 38 institutions within 3 years. The primary endpoint is treatment compliance at nine courses of mFOLFOX6 regimen in Phase II and disease-free survival in Phase III. The secondary endpoints are overall survival, incidence of adverse events and patterns of recurrence.

  H Ishida , Y Miyake , M Fukunaga , Y Watanabe , T Kato , H Takemoto and H. Furukawa
  Objective

This is a feasibility trial of oral uracil/tegafur (UFT)/oral leucovorin (LV) and irinotecan (TEGAFIRI) with maximum dose confirmed in Japan. To document the toxicity and define the objective response rate (RR); and determine progression-free and overall survival.

Methods

Patients with advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) received: UFT 300 mg/m2, LV 75 mg/body and CPT-11 150 mg/m2 (UFT and LV given on days 1–14, and CPT-11 on day 1, every 3 weeks). Eligibility: ECOG performance status (PS) 0–1, adequate bone marrow/liver function and serum creatinine level less than institutional normal value.

Results

Eighteen patients enrolled, 17 evaluable for toxicity and response and 1 patients recalled chemotherapy upon registration. Characteristics: 61% male, median age 63.5 years (51–71). Seventy-two per cent PS 0, 50% first line. One hundred and eighty-six cycles have been delivered. The common Grade 3–4 toxicities were neutropenia (35.3%), leukopenia (29.4%), diarrhea (5.9%), anorexia (5.9%), vomiting (5.9%) and dizziness (5.9%). There was no episode of febrile neutropenia. No death occurred on treatment: Overall RR was 41.2% [7/17: 1 complete response (CR) + 6 partial response (PR)]. Progression-free survival (PFS) is 6.9 months, median survival time (MST) is 25.1 months and 1-year survival rate is 70.6%, whereas PFS 15.0 months, MST 43.6+ months and 1-year survival rate 100% in cases with CR or PR.

Conclusions

Approved dose of CPT-11 is 150 mg/m2 in Japan. As is lower dose with CPT-11, TEGAFIRI for patients with advanced or metastatic CRC in Japan seems to have the similar effect with that reported abroad and indicates prolonged PFS and MST in cases with CR or PR.

 
 
 
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