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Articles by T Ito
Total Records ( 8 ) for T Ito
  T Ito , S Yamamoto , T Hayashi , M Kodera , H Mizukami , K Ozawa and S. i. Muramatsu
  Background

Recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors based on serotype 2 (AAV-2) have become leading vehicles for gene therapy. Most humans in the general population have anti-AAV-2 antibodies as a result of naturally acquired infections. Pre-existing immunity to AAV-2 might affect the functional and safety consequences of AAV-2 vector-mediated gene transfer in clinical applications.

Methods

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was developed using microwell plates coated with intact particles of recombinant AAV-2 vectors, and horseradish peroxidase-conjugated anti-human immunoglobulin G (HRP-IgG). Neutralizing antibody titres were analysed by assessing the ability of serum antibody to inhibit transduction into HEK293 cells of AAV vectors that express β-galactosidase.

Results

Anti-AAV-2 antibodies were detected by ELISA in two of 20 healthy subjects. The positivity criterion (optical density >0.5) in ELISA corresponded to the cut-off value (320-fold dilution of serum) in the AAV-2 neutralization assay. Influences of interfering substances were not observed.

Conclusion

This ELISA method may be useful for rapid screening of anti-AAV-2 neutralizing antibodies in candidates for gene therapy.

  H Nakagawa , Y Morikawa , Y Mizuno , E Harada , T Ito , K Matsui , Y Saito and H. Yasue
 

Background— Coronary spasm plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease. However, similarities and differences between coronary spasm and atherosclerosis are not known. We examined the angiographic characteristics of coronary spasm in comparison with those of atherosclerosis.

Methods and Results— Thirty-two left anterior descending arteries, 11 left circumflex arteries, and 23 right coronary arteries with spasm and atherosclerotic plaque were analyzed for the localization of spasm in comparison with that of plaque in 47 patients (38 men and 9 women, mean age 66.8±10.3 yrs). Spasm predominantly occurred at the branch point as compared with plaque in each of the 3 arteries (76.7% versus 23.3%, P<0.0001; 72.7% versus 9.1%, P<0.039; and 60.0% versus 10.0%, P=0.002, in the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary arteries, respectively). Spasm involved the proximal segment less frequently as compared with plaque in each of the 3 arteries (56.7% versus 93.3%, P<0.0001; 18.2% versus 81.8%, P=0.016; and 15.0% versus 75.0%, P<0.0001 in the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary arteries, respectively). Most spasms occurred at the nonplaque site in each of the 3 arteries (73.3%, P=0.018; 100%, P<0.0001; and 75.0%, P=0.041 in the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary arteries, respectively).

Conclusion— Coronary spasm preferentially occurred at branch points and nonplaque sites, whereas the atherosclerotic lesion was predominantly localized at the nonbranch points of the curved proximal segments. Coronary spasm may thus be a manifestation of a distinct type of arteriosclerosis different from the lipid-laden coronary atherosclerosis.

  S Sawatsubashi , T Murata , J Lim , R Fujiki , S Ito , E Suzuki , M Tanabe , Y Zhao , S Kimura , S Fujiyama , T Ueda , D Umetsu , T Ito , K. i Takeyama and S. Kato
 

Chromatin reorganization is essential for transcriptional control by sequence-specific transcription factors. However, the molecular link between transcriptional control and chromatin reconfiguration remains unclear. By colocalization of the nuclear ecdysone receptor (EcR) on the ecdysone-induced puff in the salivary gland, Drosophila DEK (dDEK) was genetically identified as a coactivator of EcR in both insect cells and intact flies. Biochemical purification and characterization of the complexes containing fly and human DEKs revealed that DEKs serve as histone chaperones via phosphorylation by forming complexes with casein kinase 2. Consistent with the preferential association of the DEK complex with histones enriched in active epigenetic marks, dDEK facilitated H3.3 assembly during puff formation. In some human myeloid leukemia patients, DEK was fused to CAN by chromosomal translocation. This mutation significantly reduced formation of the DEK complex, which is required for histone chaperone activity. Thus, the present study suggests that at least one histone chaperone can be categorized as a type of transcriptional coactivator for nuclear receptors.

  T Hamaguchi , T Ito , Y Inoue , T Limpaseni , P Pongsawasdi and K. Ito
 

Endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidases are thought to be key enzymes in the catabolism of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides. However, little is known about the enzymes of this type in basidiomycetes. We investigated endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidases in basidiomycetes using fluorescence-labeled glycoasparagines as substrates. Flammulina velutipes showed high activity and its enzyme was named endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase FV (Endo FV). The enzyme purified from the fruiting bodies of F. velutipes was separated into two forms. Endo FV was specific for high mannose and hybrid-type oligosaccharides. The enzyme was remarkably less active against asparagine-linked oligosaccharides attached to glycoproteins. It transferred an asparagine-linked oligosaccharide to Glc, but not to Gal. cDNA of Endo FV was cloned. It was composed of a 996-bp open reading frame encoding 331 amino acid residues. A recombinant Endo FV expressed in Escherichia coli showed enzymatic activity. The Endo FV gene in the genome of F. velutipes had no introns. The gene encoding Endo FV showed little homology with genes of known endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidases. A chitinase active site motif existed in the deduced primary structure, indicating that Endo FV belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 18. The deduced amino acid sequence of Endo FV had regions conserved in class III chitinases from fungi though it showed little homology with the sequence of any other endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidases. A folding model of Endo FV indicated it to be homologous with the tertiary structure of Endo H which is quite similar in specificity for asparagine-linked oligosaccharides. This study suggests that Endo FV may become similar to Endo H in substrate specificity as a result of evolutionary convergence.

  T Ito , C Nishiyama , N Nakano , M Nishiyama , Y Usui , K Takeda , S Kanada , K Fukuyama , H Akiba , T Tokura , M Hara , R Tsuboi , H Ogawa and K. Okumura
 

Over-expression of PU.1, a myeloid- and lymphoid-specific transcription factor belonging to the Ets family, induces monocyte-specific gene expression in mast cells. However, the effects of PU.1 on each target gene and the involvement of cytokine signaling in PU.1-mediated gene expression are largely unknown. In the present study, PU.1 was over-expressed in two different types of bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (BMMCs): BMMCs cultured with IL-3 plus stem cell factor (SCF) and BMMCs cultured with pokeweed mitogen-stimulated spleen-conditioned medium (PWM-SCM). PU.1 over-expression induced expression of MHC class II, CD11b, CD11c and F4/80 on PWM-SCM-cultured BMMCs, whereas IL-3/SCF-cultured BMMCs expressed CD11b and F4/80, but not MHC class II or CD11c. When IFN- was added to the IL-3/SCF-based medium, PU.1 transfectant acquired MHC class II expression, which was abolished by antibody neutralization or in Ifngr–/– BMMCs, through the induction of expression of the MHC class II transactivator, CIITA. Real-time PCR detected CIITA mRNA driven by the fourth promoter, pIV, and chromatin immunoprecipitation indicated direct binding of PU.1 to pIV in PU.1-over-expressing BMMCs. PU.1-over-expressing cells showed a marked increase in IL-6 production in response to LPS stimulation in both IL-3/SCF and PWM-SCM cultures. These results suggest that PU.1 overproduction alone is sufficient for both expression of CD11b and F4/80 and for amplification of LPS-induced IL-6 production. However, IFN- stimulation is essential for PU.1-mediated transactivation of CIITA pIV. Reduced expression of mast cell-related molecules and transcription factors GATA-1/2 and up-regulation of C/EBP in PU.1 transfectants indicate that enforced PU.1 suppresses mast cell-specific gene expression through these transcription factors.

  T Hara , K Tanaka , K Maehata , K Mitsuda , N. Y Yamasaki , M Ohsaki , K Watanabe , X Yu , T Ito and Y. Yamanaka
 

A new energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) with a mi- crocalorimeter detector equipped with a transmission electron microscope (TEM) has been developed for high- accuracy compositional analysis in the nanoscale. A superconducting transition-edge-sensor-type microcalorimeter is applied as the detector. A cryogen-free cooling system, which consists of a mechanical and a dilution refrigerator, is selected to achieve long-term temperature stability. In order to mount these detector and refrigerators on a TEM, the cooling system is specially designed such that these two refrigerators are separated. Also, the detector position and arrangement are carefully designed to avoid adverse affects between the superconductor detector and the TEM lens system. Using the developed EDS system, at present, an energy resolution of 21.92 eV full-width-at-half maximum has been achieved at the Cr K line. This value is about seven times better than that of the current typical commercial Si(Li) detector, which is usually around 140 eV. The developed microcalorimeter EDS system can measure a wide energy range, 1–20 keV, at one time with this high energy resolution that can resolve peaks from most of the elements. Although several further developments will be needed to enable practical use, highly accurate compositional analysis with high energy resolution will be realized by this microcalorimeter EDS system.

  K Abe , K Osakabe , Y Ishikawa , A Tagiri , H Yamanouchi , T Takyuu , T Yoshioka , T Ito , M Kobayashi , K Shinozaki , H Ichikawa and S. Toki
 

BRCA2 is a breast tumour susceptibility factor with functions in maintaining genome stability through ensuring efficient double-strand DNA break (DSB) repair via homologous recombination. Although best known in vertebrates, fungi, and higher plants also possess BRCA2-like genes. To investigate the role of Arabidopsis BRCA2 genes in DNA repair in somatic cells, transposon insertion mutants of the AtBRCA2a and AtBRCA2b genes were identified and characterized. atbrca2a-1 and atbrca2b-1 mutant plants showed hypersensitivity to genotoxic stresses compared to wild-type plants. An atbrca2a-1/atbrca2b-1 double mutant showed an additive increase in sensitivity to genotoxic stresses compared to each single mutant. In addition, it was found that atbrca2 mutant plants displayed fasciation and abnormal phyllotaxy phenotypes with low incidence, and that the ratio of plants exhibiting these phenotypes is increased by -irradiation. Interestingly, these phenotypes were also induced by -irradiation in wild-type plants. Moreover, it was found that shoot apical meristems of the atbrca2a-1/atbrca2b-1 double mutant show altered cell cycle progression. These data suggest that inefficient DSB repair in the atbrca2a-1/atbrca2b-1 mutant leads to disorganization of the programmed cell cycle of apical meristems.

  K Ogura , T Tandai , S Yoshinaga , Y Kobashigawa , H Kumeta , T Ito , H Sumimoto and F. Inagaki
 

Bem1 and Cdc24 of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae interact with each other through PB1–PB1 heterodimer formation to regulate the establishment of cell polarity. Here we present the tertiary structure of the heterodimer of Bem1 and Cdc24 PB1 domains determined by NMR spectroscopy. To avoid ambiguity in the NMR spectral analysis, we first prepared a mutant of the Cdc24 PB1 domain that had truncated loops. The mutant provided well dispersed spectra without spectral overlapping, thus allowing unambiguous spectral assignments for structure determination. We confirmed that the loop deletion-mutant was quite similar to the wild-type in both 3D structure and binding affinity. The NMR structure of the heterodimer of the deletion-mutant of Cdc24 PB1 and Bem1 PB1 was determined using a variety of isotope labelled samples including perdeuteration. The interface between the Bem1/Cdc24 PB1 heterodimer was analysed at atomic resolution. Through a comparison with the tertiary structures of other PB1–PB1 heterodimers, we found that conserved electrostatic properties on the molecular surface were commonly used for PB1–PB1 interaction, but hydrophobic interactions were important for cognate interaction in Bem1/Cdc24 PB1 heterodimer formation.

 
 
 
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