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Articles by T Higashi
Total Records ( 2 ) for T Higashi
  K Nakano , T Higashi , R Takagi , K Hashimoto , Y Tanaka and S. Matsushita

A major neurotransmitter dopamine transmits signals via five different seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors termed D1–D5. It is now evident that dopamine is released from leukocytes and acts as autocrine or paracrine immune modulator. However, the role of dopamine for dendritic cells (DCs) and Th differentiation remains unclear. We herein demonstrate that human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DCs) stored dopamine in the secretary vesicles. The storage of dopamine in Mo-DCs was enhanced by forskolin and dopamine D2-like receptor antagonists via increasing cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) formation. Antigen-specific interaction with naive CD4+ T cells induced releasing dopamine-including vesicles from Mo-DCs. In naive CD4+ T cells, dopamine dose dependently increased cAMP levels via D1-like receptors and shifts T-cell differentiation to Th2, in response to anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 mAb. Furthermore, we demonstrated that dopamine D2-like receptor antagonists, such as sulpiride and nemonapride, induced a significant DC-mediated Th2 differentiation, using mixed lymphocyte reaction between human Mo-DCs and allogeneic naive CD4+ T cells. When dopamine release from Mo-DCs is inhibited by colchicines (a microtubule depolymerizer), T-cell differentiation shifts toward Th1. These findings identify DCs as a new source of dopamine, which functions as a Th2-polarizing factor in DC-naive T-cell interface.

  T Higashi , R Machii , A Aoki , C Hamashima and H. Saito

To evaluate the appropriateness of current checklists created by a governmental committee to assess screening programs run by municipal governments and service provider facilities for gastric and colorectal cancer, and to accumulate expert opinions to provide insights aimed at the next revision.


We convened an expert panel that consisted of physicians nominated by regional offices of the Japanese Society for Gastrointestinal Cancer Screening and radiology technicians nominated by the technician chapter of the society. The panel rated the appropriateness of each checklist item on a scale of 1–9 (1, extremely inappropriate; 9, extremely appropriate) twice, between which they had a face-to-face discussion meeting. During the process they were allowed to propose modifications and additions to the items.


In the first round of rating, the panelists rated all 57 and 56 checklists items for gastric and colorectal cancer, respectively, as appropriate based on an acceptance rule determined a priori. During the process of the face-to-face discussion, however, the panel proposed modifications to 23 (40%) and 22 (39%) items, respectively, and the addition of 27 new items each. After integrating overlapping items and rating again for appropriateness, 66 and 64 items, respectively, were accepted as the revised checklist set.


The expert panel considered current checklists for colorectal and gastric cancer-screening programs and facilities to be suitable. Their proposals for a new set of checklist items will help further improve the checklists.

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