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Articles by T Hara
Total Records ( 3 ) for T Hara
  T Hara , K Tanaka , K Maehata , K Mitsuda , N. Y Yamasaki , M Ohsaki , K Watanabe , X Yu , T Ito and Y. Yamanaka
 

A new energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) with a mi- crocalorimeter detector equipped with a transmission electron microscope (TEM) has been developed for high- accuracy compositional analysis in the nanoscale. A superconducting transition-edge-sensor-type microcalorimeter is applied as the detector. A cryogen-free cooling system, which consists of a mechanical and a dilution refrigerator, is selected to achieve long-term temperature stability. In order to mount these detector and refrigerators on a TEM, the cooling system is specially designed such that these two refrigerators are separated. Also, the detector position and arrangement are carefully designed to avoid adverse affects between the superconductor detector and the TEM lens system. Using the developed EDS system, at present, an energy resolution of 21.92 eV full-width-at-half maximum has been achieved at the Cr K line. This value is about seven times better than that of the current typical commercial Si(Li) detector, which is usually around 140 eV. The developed microcalorimeter EDS system can measure a wide energy range, 1–20 keV, at one time with this high energy resolution that can resolve peaks from most of the elements. Although several further developments will be needed to enable practical use, highly accurate compositional analysis with high energy resolution will be realized by this microcalorimeter EDS system.

  N Adachi , N Akanuma , M Ito , M Kato , T Hara , Y Oana , M Matsuura , Y Okubo and T. Onuma
 

Background

Age at the first psychotic episode and an interval between the onset of epilepsy and that of psychosis reflect developmental processes of interictal psychosis. However, factors relating to these indices remain unknown.

Aims

To identify clinical variables that are associated with the timing of the development of interictal psychosis.

Method

In 285 adults with epilepsy with interictal psychosis, effects of epileptic (epilepsy type), organic (intellectual functioning) and genetic (family history of psychosis) variables on timing of the development of psychosis were examined.

Results

The mean interval between the onset of epilepsy and that of psychosis was 14.4 years. Some psychosis occurred within a few years of the first seizure. Generalised epilepsy, normal intellectual function and a positive family history of psychosis were associated with early onset of psychosis.

Conclusions

Early development of interictal psychosis in people with epilepsy may reflect other individual vulnerabilities to psychosis rather than epilepsy-related damage.

  Y Minegishi , M Saito , M Nagasawa , H Takada , T Hara , S Tsuchiya , K Agematsu , M Yamada , N Kawamura , T Ariga , I Tsuge and H. Karasuyama
 

Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by atopic manifestations and susceptibility to infections with extracellular pathogens, typically Staphylococcus aureus, which preferentially affect the skin and lung. Previous studies reported the defective differentiation of T helper 17 (Th17) cells in HIES patients caused by hypomorphic STAT3 mutations. However, the apparent contradiction between the systemic Th17 deficiency and the skin/lung-restricted susceptibility to staphylococcal infections remains puzzling. We present a possible molecular explanation for this enigmatic contradiction. HIES T cells showed impaired production of Th17 cytokines but normal production of classical proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin 1β. Normal human keratinocytes and bronchial epithelial cells were deeply dependent on the synergistic action of Th17 cytokines and classical proinflammatory cytokines for their production of antistaphylococcal factors, including neutrophil-recruiting chemokines and antimicrobial peptides. In contrast, other cell types were efficiently stimulated with the classical proinflammatory cytokines alone to produce such factors. Accordingly, keratinocytes and bronchial epithelial cells, unlike other cell types, failed to produce antistaphylococcal factors in response to HIES T cell–derived cytokines. These results appear to explain, at least in part, why HIES patients suffer from recurrent staphylococcal infections confined to the skin and lung in contrast to more systemic infections in neutrophil-deficient patients.

 
 
 
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