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Articles by T Davis
Total Records ( 3 ) for T Davis
  X Cui , Y Jin , D Poudyal , A. A Chumanevich , T Davis , A Windust , A Hofseth , W Wu , J Habiger , E Pena , P Wood , M Nagarkatti , P. S Nagarkatti and L. Hofseth

We have recently shown that American ginseng (AG) prevents and treats mouse colitis. Because both mice and humans with chronic colitis have a high colon cancer risk, we tested the hypothesis that AG can be used to prevent colitis-driven colon cancer. Using the azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) mouse model of ulcerative colitis, we show that AG can suppress colon cancer associated with colitis. To explore the molecular mechanisms of the anticancer effects of AG, we also carried out antibody array experiments on colon cells isolated at a precancerous stage. We found there were 82 protein end points that were either significantly higher (41 proteins) or significantly lower (41 proteins) in the AOM + DSS group compared with the AOM-alone (control) group. In contrast, there were only 19 protein end points that were either significantly higher (10 proteins) or significantly lower (9 proteins) in the AOM + DSS + AG group compared with the AOM-alone (control) group. Overall, these results suggest that AG keeps the colon environment in metabolic equilibrium when mice are treated with AOM + DSS and gives insight into the mechanisms by which AG protects from colon cancer associated with colitis.

  A. A Chumanevich , D Poudyal , X Cui , T Davis , P. A Wood , C. D Smith and L. J. Hofseth

Sphingolipid metabolism is driven by inflammatory cytokines. These cascade of events include the activation of sphingosine kinase (SK), and subsequent production of the mitogenic and proinflammatory lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). Overall, S1P is one of the crucial components in inflammation, making SK an excellent target for the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs. We have recently shown that SK inhibitors suppress colitis and hypothesize here that the novel SK inhibitor, ABC294640, prevents the development of colon cancer. In an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) mouse model, there was a dose-dependent decrease in tumor incidence with SK inhibitor treatment. The tumor incidence (number of animals with tumors per group) in the vehicle, ABC294640 (20 mg/kg) and ABC294640 (50 mg/kg) groups were 80, 40 and 30%, respectively. Tumor multiplicity (number of tumors per animal) also decreased from 2.1 ± 0.23 tumors per animal in the AOM + DSS + vehicle group to 1.2 ± 0 tumors per animal in the AOM + DSS + ABC294640 (20 mg/kg) and to 0.8 ± 0.4 tumors per animal in the AOM + DSS + ABC294640 (50 mg/kg) group. Importantly, with ABC294640, there were no observed toxic side effects. To explore mechanisms, we isolated cells from the colon (CD45–, representing primarily colon epithelial cells) and (CD45+, representing primarily colon inflammatory cells) then measured known targets of SK that control cell survival. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that the inhibition of SK activity by our novel SK inhibitor modulates key pathways involved in cell survival and may be a viable treatment strategy for the chemoprevention colitis-driven colon cancer.

  A. V Finn , M John , G Nakazawa , R Polavarapu , V Karmali , X Xu , Q Cheng , T Davis , C Raghunathan , E Acampado , T Ezell , S Lajoie , M Eppihimer , F. D Kolodgie , R Virmani and H. K. Gold

Rationale: Sirolimus-eluting coronary stents (SESs) and paclitaxel-eluting coronary stents (PESs) are used to reduce restenosis but have different sites of action. The molecular targets of sirolimus overlap with those of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonist rosiglitazone (RSG) but the consequence of this interaction on endothelialization is unknown.

Objective: Using the New Zealand white rabbit iliac model of stenting, we examined the effects of RSG on SESs, PESs, and bare metal stents endothelialization.

Methods and Results: Animals receiving SESs, PESs, or bare metal stents and either RSG (3 mg/kg per day) or placebo were euthanized at 28 days, and arteries were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Fourteen-day organ culture and Western blotting of iliac arteries and tissue culture experiments were conducted. Endothelialization was significantly reduced by RSG in SESs but not in PESs or bare metal stents. Organ culture revealed reduced vascular endothelial growth factor in SESs receiving RSG compared to RSG animals receiving bare metal stent or PESs. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) revealed that sirolimus (but not paclitaxel) inhibited RSG-induced vascular endothelial growth factor transcription. Western blotting demonstrated that inhibition of molecular signaling in SES+RSG–treated arteries was similar to findings in HAECs treated with RSG and small interfering RNA to PPAR, suggesting that sirolimus inhibits PPAR. Transfection of HAECs with mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) short hairpin RNA and with Akt2 small interfering RNA significantly inhibited RSG-mediated transcriptional upregulation of heme oxygenase-1, a PPAR target gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated sirolimus interferes with binding of PPAR to its response elements in heme oxygenase-1 promoter.

Conclusions: mTOR/Akt2 is required for optimal PPAR activation. Patients who receive SESs during concomitant RSG treatment may be at risk for delayed stent healing.

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