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Articles by Susilawati Kasim
Total Records ( 5 ) for Susilawati Kasim
  Susilawati Kasim , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed , Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid and Khanif Yusop
  The isolation of humic acids from soils is laborious and time consuming. Factors that affect the yield of humic acids isolated from soils include extraction, fractionation and purification periods. This study was conducted to investigate whether a relationship could be separately established between extraction time, fractionation time, and the yield of humic acids of a tropical peat soil (Hemists), as well as the relationship between both variables on the yield of humic acids of this soil. Modified standard procedures using 0.1 M KOH were used to isolate humic acids from a tropical peat soil. Even though there was a quadratic relationship between extraction period and yield of humic acids, there was no relationship between fractionation period and yield of humic acids. There was negative correlation between the yields of extraction and fractionation periods. This finding enables the isolation of humic acids of Hemists in less than 10 h instead of the existing average period of 48 h, therefore helping in facilitating the idea of producing for instance ammonium-humate or K-humate (N and K foliar organic fertilizers) from peat soils.
  Susilawati Kasim , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed , Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid , Mohd Khanif Yusop and Mohamadu Boyie Jalloh
  Problem statement: Fertilizer N use efficiency is reduced by ammonia volatilization. Under low soil CEC and high pH, N from soil solution is released to the atmosphere. Ammonia loss due to low worldwide N use efficiency (33%) has been implicated in global warming. Thus, the objectives of this laboratory study were to evaluate the effectiveness of liquid humic and fulvic acids, isolated from tropical peat soils in reducing N loss from urea fertilizer as well as to investigate the ability of these acids to retain NH4+ and NO3¯ or reduce soil pH.
Approach: Formulated liquid N fertilizers consisting of urea and different types of humic molecules (HA or FA or mixture of both), solid and liquid urea were surface applied to 250 g of soil. A closed dynamic air flow system was used to trap NH3 loss in boric acid after which samples were titrated with 0.01 M HCl to estimate NH3 loss. After 30 days of incubation, the soil was air dried and analysed for pH, exchangeable NH4+, available NO3¯ and exchangeable cations. The results were analysed using SAS and treatments means were compared using Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test (DNMRT).
Results:
The use of humic molecules reduced NH3 loss and increased exchangeable NH4+. The high CEC of Humic Acids (HA) made the LHA treatment the best in reducing N loss after surface application. The presence of HA and Fulvic Acids (FA) increased NH4+ recovery. Even though, the soil pH of all the treatments were high, significant reduction of N loss was observed for humic molecules treatments.
Conclusion:
The use of liquid organic N fertilizer has the ability to reduce NH3 volatilization in acid soil. The use of both humic and fulvic acids could be effective in promoting NH4+ retention. Thus, it can be concluding that, humic substances, in general, have great ability in controlling NH3 loss and retaining NH4+ in acid soils. It could be a cheapest, practical and easiest way to control N loss.
  Susilawati Kasim , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed , Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid and Mohd Khanif Yusop
  The objectives of this study were: To investigate whether a purification period of HA isolated from Hemists peat soils could be reduced and to investigate whether distilled water could be used to purify HA isolated from Hemists peat soils. Standard procedures were used to extract and fractionate HA in a Hemists peat soil. The isolated HA was purified by suspending the HA 50 mL distilled water, centrifuged for 10 minutes, supernatant decanted and the liquor analyzed for K, Ca, Mg and Na by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The entire procedure was repeated five times after which the purified HA samples were oven dried at 40ºC to a constant weight. Washing HA for 5 consecutive times (10 min for each washing) reduced the ash (mineral matter) content of the HA to an acceptance level of 2%. This finding was associated with significant decrease in K, Ca, Mg and Na contents with increased washing time. This observation also suggests that the distilled water used during the purification process served as Bronsted-Lowry acid thereby donating more H+ which may have replaced some of K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+ at the exchange sites of the HA. The C, carboxylic COOH, phenolic OH, total acidity and E4/E6 values of the purified HA were consistent with standard values, a further indication of the effectiveness of using distilled water in purifying HA from Hemists peat soil. Humic acids isolated from Hemists peat soil can be purified within one hour using distilled water without altering the true nature of HA.
  Hasbullah Nur Aainaa , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed , Susilawati Kasim and Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid
  In acid soils of the humid tropics, Phosphorus (P) deficiency due to its fixation by Al and Fe is common. It is therefore important to ensure adequate supply of P for optimum crop production. The use of zeolite on acid soils could fix Al and Fe and thus, rendering P readily available for crop use. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of including clinoptilolite zeolite in Zea mays cultivation on an acid soil on selected soil chemical properties, dry matter production, nutrient uptake and use efficiency of Zea mays. Triple Super Phosphate (TSP), urea and Muriate of Potash (MOP) were used in this study. Twenty five percent of the recommended N, P and K fertilizers for Zea mays were replaced with Clinoptilolite zeolite. Standard procedures were used to determine soil pH, exchangeable ammonium, available nitrate, available phosphorus, exchangeable aluminium, iron, cations and organic matter before and after planting. The plants were harvested at tasselling stage and measured for dry matter production, nutrients uptake and use efficiency. The effect of zeolite application with 75% of fertilization (T2) and 100% fertilization (T1) on soil chemical properties were statistically similar. Similar observation was made on dry matter production, nutrients concentration, nutrients uptake and nutrients use efficiency. The findings reported in this paper indicate that Clinoptilolite zeolite could be used to reduce the use of N, P and K fertilizers use of Zea mays on acid soils. At least three cropping cycles are recommended to confirm the findings of this study. It is also essential to estimate the economic benefits of including zeolite in Zea mays cultivation. These aspects are being investigated in on-going field trial.
  Hasbullah Nur Aainaa , Osumanu Haruna Ahmed , Susilawati Kasim and Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid
  This study was conducted to (i) Determine dry matter production, nutrients concentration, nutrients uptake and use efficiency of Zea mays by including clinoptilolite zeolite in the fertilization program of Zea mays planted on an acid soil and (ii) Determine the effect of including Clinoptilolite zeolite in the fertilization program of Zea mays on selected chemical properties of an acid soil. The effect of Clinoptilolite zeolite application with 75% of fertilizers (C2) and 100% fertilizers (C1) on soil chemical properties were statistically similar. Similar observation was made for dry matter production, nutrients concentration, nutrients uptake and nutrients use efficiency. These suggest that substituting 25% of N, P and K fertilizers with Clinoptilolite zeolite is more beneficial compared to 100% application of these fertilizers. Clinoptilolite zeolite strong affinity for monovalent cations ensured timely availability of P by exerting more soil exchange sites to occupy Al3+ and Fe2+.
 
 
 
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