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Articles by Susanna R. Keller
Total Records ( 2 ) for Susanna R. Keller
  Anil Kumar , Thurl E. Harris , Susanna R. Keller , Kin M. Choi , Mark A. Magnuson and John C. Lawrence Jr.
  Rictor is an essential component of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) complex 2 (mTORC2), a kinase complex that phosphorylates Akt at Ser473 upon activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3 kinase). Since little is known about the role of either rictor or mTORC2 in PI-3 kinase-mediated physiological processes in adult animals, we generated muscle-specific rictor knockout mice. Muscle from male rictor knockout mice exhibited decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and the mice showed glucose intolerance. In muscle lacking rictor, the phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 was reduced dramatically in response to insulin. Furthermore, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the Akt substrate AS160 at Thr642 was reduced in rictor knockout muscle, indicating a defect in insulin signaling to stimulate glucose transport. However, the phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308 was normal and sufficient to mediate the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3). Basal glycogen synthase activity in muscle lacking rictor was increased to that of insulin-stimulated controls. Consistent with this, we observed a decrease in basal levels of phosphorylated glycogen synthase at a GSK-3/protein phosphatase 1 (PP1)-regulated site in rictor knockout muscle. This change in glycogen synthase phosphorylation was associated with an increase in the catalytic activity of glycogen-associated PP1 but not increased GSK-3 inactivation. Thus, rictor in muscle tissue contributes to glucose homeostasis by positively regulating insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and negatively regulating basal glycogen synthase activity.
  Jose A. Chavez , William G. Roach , Susanna R. Keller , William S. Lane and Gustav E. Lienhard
  Insulin increases glucose transport by stimulating the trafficking of intracellular GLUT4 to the cell surface, a process known as GLUT4 translocation. A key protein in signaling this process is AS160, a Rab GTPase-activating protein (GAP) whose activity appears to be suppressed by Akt phosphorylation. Tbc1d1 is a Rab GAP with a sequence highly similar to that of AS160 and with the same Rab specificity as that of AS160. The role of Tbc1d1 in regulating GLUT4 trafficking has been unclear. Our previous study showed that overexpressed Tbc1d1 inhibited insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, even though insulin caused phosphorylation on its single canonical Akt motif. In the present study, we show in 3T3-L1 adipocytes that Tbc1d1 is only 1/20 as abundant as AS160, that knockdown of Tbc1d1 has no effect on insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation, and that overexpressed Tbc1d1 also inhibits GLUT4 translocation elicited by activated Akt expression. These results indicate that endogenous Tbc1d1 does not participate in insulin-regulated GLUT4 translocation in adipocytes and suggest that the GAP activity of Tbc1d1 is not suppressed by Akt phosphorylation. In addition, we discovered that Tbc1d1 is much more highly expressed in skeletal muscle than fat and that the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator 5’-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside partially reversed the inhibition of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation by overexpressed Tbc1d1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. 5’-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside activation of the kinase AMPK is known to cause GLUT4 translocation in muscle. The above findings strongly suggest that Tbc1d1 is a component in the signal transduction pathway leading to AMPK-stimulated GLUT4 translocation in muscle.
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